Capelin Newfoundland & Labrador Region 2+3
(Capelin Fishing Areas 1-11)

Foreword

Picture of capelin
Capelin
(Mallotus villosus)

The purpose of this Integrated fisheries management plan (IFMP) is to identify the main objectives and requirements for the Newfoundland and Labrador Region capelin fishery in NAFO Division 2+3, as well as the management measures that will be used to achieve these objectives. This document also serves to communicate basic information on the fishery and its management to Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) staff, legislated co-management boards and committees, and other stakeholders. This IFMP provides a common understanding of the basic “rules” for the sustainable management of the fisheries resource.

This IFMP is not a legally binding instrument which can form the basis of a legal challenge. The IFMP can be modified at any time and does not fetter the Minister's discretionary powers set out in the Fisheries Act.  The Minister can, for reasons of conservation or for any other valid reasons, modify any provision of the IFMP in accordance with the powers granted pursuant to the Fisheries Act.

Where DFO is responsible for implementing obligations under land claims agreements, the IFMP will be implemented in a manner consistent with these obligations. In the event that an IFMP is inconsistent with obligations under land claim agreements, the provisions of land claims agreements will prevail to the extent of the inconsistency.

As with any policy, the Minister retains the discretion to make exceptions to, or to change, this policy at any time. It is, however, DFO’s expectation and intention to follow the management process set out in this IFMP, with a view to contributing to increased certainty and direction for the capelin fishery in Newfoundland and Labrador.

This IFMP will be in effect until it is replaced. While the elements of this plan will remain in effect indefinitely, quotas are subject to annual review and may be adjusted based on updated Science information. This could include changes to the TAC, as well as adjustments to annexes and website listings. 

Jacqueline Perry
A/Regional Director General
Newfoundland and Labrador Region

Table of Contents

1.0 Overview of the fishery
2.0 Stock assessment, science and traditional knowledge
3.0 Economic, social and cultural importance of the fishery
4.0 Management issues
5.0 Objectives
6.0 Access and allocation
7.0 Management measures
8.0 Shared stewardship arrangements
9.0 Compliance plan
10.0 Performance review
11.0 Glossary of Terms
Appendices

1.0 Overview of the fishery

1.1 History of the fishery

Historically, a domestic fishery with an estimated annual harvest of about 25,000 tonnes existed for spawning capelin on Newfoundland and Labrador beaches to provide food, bait and fertilizer for local residents. 

In the late 1970’s and early 1980’s a very small number of fish harvesters prosecuted the capelin fishery for commercial purposes; however with the increased demand for roe in the Japanese capelin market from the mid to the late 1980’s, so too did the number of commercial fish harvesters participating in the fishery.

The inshore fishery for roe capelin began during the late 1970s with Japan being the primary market destination for roe-bearing females. In recent years, new markets are being developed for non-roe-bearing females and males. Meanwhile, difficulties with the capelin fisheries in Norway and Iceland have resulted in increased demand for capelin products from Newfoundland and Labrador resulting in improved market opportunities and prices. 

1.2 Type of fishery

Note: for ease of reference, the 2J3KLPs capelin fishery will hence be referred to by the abbreviated reference of 2+3 capelin fishery.

Of the four capelin stocks around Newfoundland and Labrador, only 2J3KL and 3Ps capelin in eastern and southern Newfoundland and Labrador are covered by this IFMP.  Although they are currently considered two separate stocks, both elements are managed under the same management plan.

The capelin stock in 3NO is managed by the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) and does not include a Canadian fishery. The 4RST capelin stock on the west coast of Newfoundland and Southern Labrador, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence is covered under a separate IFMP. [link] 

Capelin is fished using both fixed and mobile gear. The fixed gear capelin fishery uses traps and modified bar seines known as tuck seines. The mobile gear fleet uses purse seines.

The 2+3 capelin fishery is managed on the basis of a single Total Allowable Catch (TAC). The TAC is managed under the IFMP with a mix of competitive and Individual Quota (IQ) fisheries, depending on the Capelin Fishing Area (CFA) and gear type involved. IQ fisheries are implemented in portions of:

1.3 Participants

There are approximately 71 active mobile gear participants and 207 active fixed gear participants in the 2+3 capelin fishery for a total of 278 active participants. By way of comparison, there were 947 licenced capelin fish harvesters in 2+3 in 1984. This increased to a high of 2,693 in 1989 with most of the expansion in the fixed gear sector. Mobile gear licences increased from 190 licenses in 1984 to a peak of 233 licenses in 1988.

Included in the number of commercial licences are communal commercial capelin licences issued to Indigenous organizations in Newfoundland and Labrador.

1.4 Location of the fishery

The bulk of today's inshore capelin fishery occurs along the east and northeast coast of Newfoundland and Labrador where the major stock component is located (NAFO Division 3KL).

Map of Northwest atlantic fisheries management NAFO divisions
Figure 1: Map of Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Management NAFO Divisions
Map of Capelin fishing areas around Newfoundland and Labrador
Figure 2: Map of capelin fishing areas around Newfoundland and Labrador

1.5 Fishery characteristics

The 2+3 capelin fishery is managed on the basis of an annual management plan. The current management cycle runs from January 1 to December 31. Science advice on the stock and subsequent advisory meetings with stakeholders and Indigenous groups occur every year. Additional meetings with stakeholders may be added to this schedule for any reason deemed appropriate by DFO.

Capelin is fished using both fixed and mobile gear. The fixed gear fishery in all areas uses traps and modified bar seines known as “tuck seines”. The fixed gear fishery occurs in specific areas or bays. The mobile gear fleet is made up of <65’ purse seine vessels. The mobile gear fishery occurs where the resource is available in Capelin Fishing Areas (CFAs) 1-11.

1.6 Governance

The Newfoundland and Labrador capelin fishery is governed by the Fisheries Act, regulations made pursuant to the Act, and departmental policies. The key regulations and policies that apply include, but are not limited to:

The Fisheries Licencing Policy of Newfoundland and Labrador Region provides details on the various licensing policies that govern the commercial fishing industry in the Newfoundland and Labrador Region. DFO should be consulted for all purposes of interpreting and applying this document.

The last 2+3 capelin advisory meeting was held in Gander, NL on April 4, 2018. A list of advisory committee members is provided in Appendix 3.

1.7 Approval process

This Integrated Fisheries Management Plan is approved by the Regional Director General of the Newfoundland and Labrador Region. Opening and closing dates for specific areas and gear types are determined by DFO area staff in consultation with industry. Other issues that arise will be addressed through similar consultative processes. Any changes to licence conditions are tabled by DFO officials at the annual advisory meeting.

Unless there are conservation issues, the intent is to manage the fishery based on the measures outlined in this IFMP. Stakeholders seeking new management measures are required to table their requests at the next scheduled DFO-industry advisory meeting.

2.0 Stock assessment, science and traditional knowledge

2.1 Biological characteristics

Capelin are a short-lived (maximum 6 years), small (12-24 cm), schooling pelagic fish with a circumpolar distribution in sub-Arctic regions. Capelin are the linchpin of the ecosystem, acting as a conduit of energy between lower trophic levels and top predators. Capelin, like other forage fish species, exhibit boom and bust population dynamics where population abundances change rapidly in response to environmental conditions. For capelin, environmental variability in onshore winds, temperature, and prey availability in the first few weeks of life can have a large impact on capelin larval survival and subsequent year class strength (Leggett et al. 1984, Murphy et al. 2018). Furthermore, timing of ice-mediated spring blooms, which is linked to the timing of zooplankton prey availability, is an important factor affecting adult capelin condition and survival (Buren et al. 2014).

Capelin in SA2 + Divs. 3KL spend the majority of their life offshore. Capelin nursery areas are located on the northern Grand Bank and the Northeast Newfoundland Shelf although juveniles can also be found in the major northeastern bays of Newfoundland. In the summer (June-August), schools of spawning adults migrate inshore to spawn on Newfoundland and Labrador beaches and at deep-water (‘demersal’, < 40 m) spawning sites close to beaches. Choice of spawning location appears to be based on temperature rather than genetics, whereas beach spawning stops when the beach gets too hot (> 12°C). After spawning, adults experience high mortality rates with up to 100% of males and 50-75% of females die. Fertilized capelin eggs adhere to sediment at beach and demersal sites and hatch approximately 2 weeks after fertilization, depending on temperature. Upon hatch, the capelin larvae emerge from sediments at beach and demersal sites and mix in the nearshore area. Capelin larvae spend up to a month in the northeastern bays of Newfoundland before being advected from the bays on surface currents. The larval stage lasts for approximately 8 months before capelin metamorphose into juveniles.

Profound changes in capelin distribution and abundance in SA2 + Divs. 3KL were first observed in 1991, which corresponded with other major changes in the ecosystem, namely the collapse of the groundfish stocks and a shift to cold oceanographic conditions (Carscadden et al. 2001; Carscadden et al. 2013). Fundamental changes in capelin biology occurred at the same time, including maturation shifting from ages 3-4 to age 2, delayed and protracted spawning, changes in geographical and vertical distribution, and declines in somatic condition (Frank et al. 1996, Carscadden and Nakashima 1997, Mowbray 2002, Nakashima and Wheeler 2002). Anomalous meteorological and oceanographic conditions were hypothesized to have driven the collapse in capelin biomass with colder temperatures associated with southerly excursions of capelin (Frank et al. 1996); decreased or changed prey availability (Carscadden et al. 2001); and delayed spawning times and smaller size-at-age (Carscadden et al. 1997). While there has been a general warming in oceanographic conditions from 1995-2010 (Colbourne et al. 2016), capelin biomass has not yet recovered to pre-1991 levels.

2.2 Ecosystem interactions

Capelin is an integral component of the ecosystem and interacts with both lower and higher trophic levels in marine food webs. Since 2015, there has been low productivity in the Newfoundland and Labrador ecosystem with cooler conditions related to delayed spring blooms and a shift in zooplankton community composition to smaller copepod taxa along with a substantial reduction in zooplankton biomass. Calanus finmarchicus, a large copepod, is an important prey item for juvenile and adult capelin, and abundance of C. finmarchicus has been below average for the last 4 years.

Ecosystem-level estimates of capelin consumption by predatory fish have been increasing since 2010, with capelin consumption estimated to be around 1 million tonnes per year for 2016 and 2017. This level of predation is high relative to the past 25 years, but is low relative to the late 1980s. This increase in capelin consumption is due to the combined effects of increased biomass of piscivorous fish, an increase in the proportion of capelin in their diets since 2011, and decreases in the abundance of alternative forage species such as shrimp since 2013. Marine mammals and seabirds are also important predators of capelin; however, these species exhibit slow rates of change in population abundance due to their longevity compared to the short lifespan of capelin, and marine mammals and seabirds are not likely to be responsible for year to year changes in capelin abundance.

2.3 Aboriginal traditional knowledge

Aboriginal traditional knowledge and traditional ecological knowledge in the form of observations and comments from Aboriginal groups are considered in management decisions when provided.

2.4 Stock assessment process

Details of the most recent assessment of NAFO sub-area 2 + Division 3KL Capelin in February 2018 can be found in Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat (CSAS) Science Advisory Report 2018/030

2.5 Stock scenarios or stock assessment results

The capelin stock assessment is primarily based on two indices: the annual spring offshore acoustic survey of southern Div. 3K and all of Div. 3L including an inshore acoustic survey of Trinity Bay, and the annual larval monitoring program in Trinity Bay. The annual spring acoustic survey produces an index of abundance for the immature portion of the stock as it surveys the main capelin nursery area. The acoustic survey does not provide an estimate of the capelin spawning stock biomass. The spring acoustic abundance index in 2017 declined 70% from its peak in 2013-2015 returning to values similar to the late 2000s (Fig. 3). The majority of the 2017 spring acoustic abundance index was attributable to age 2 capelin which comprised a record high 91% of the capelin surveyed, while ages 1, 3 and 4 were among the lowest values in the time-series. In 2017, 35% of age 2 capelin were maturing in the offshore, which is typical of capelin post-1991. In 2017, the condition of the smaller capelin size classes (10-13 cm) were average for the time-series, while condition of the largest capelin size classes (14-17 cm) was the second lowest in the time series. In 2017, the spatial distribution of capelin observed during the spring acoustic survey was similar to the pattern common during the 1999-2011 period, with most of the capelin biomass located along the 200 m depth contour of the shelf break and in deeper areas off Bonavista Bay.

Since 2014, the capelin larval index has been below average (Fig. 4). This suggests that spawning stock biomass in 2018, which will be composed of the 2015 and 2016 year classes, may be smaller than average. Peak spawning times at Bryants Cove and Bellevue Beach over the last 3 years have been up to 4 weeks later compared to the 1980s. Later spawning times has been related to lower capelin larval survival, which may be related to a mismatch in onshore wind events and less time for larvae to grow before their first winter (Murphy et al. 2018). For 2015-2017, the province-wide capelin beach spawning events occurred at similar times and lasted for similar durations, except for protracted spawning in 2016 (10-24 July 2015; 12 July-16 August 2016; 9-25 July 2017)

Other data considered in the stock assessment process are biological samples from the commercial inshore capelin fishery in Div. 3KL and presence/absence data of capelin from the fall bottom trawl surveys. The sizes of capelin landed in 2017 in Div. 3KL were the smallest in the time-series. The small sizes recorded in the fishery were associated with an unusually high proportion of age 2 fish spawning. The presence/absence data of capelin from the fall bottom trawl surveys (1995-2017) were used in a center of gravity analysis. This analysis found that capelin exhibits a northern distribution when abundance is high and a southward distribution when abundance is low. In 2011-2014, the center gravity of capelin shifted north, and in 2015-2017, the center of gravity of capelin shifted south.

In summary, the current low values of the two main capelin indices are likely attributable to environmental conditions (e.g., bottom-up processes) including poor prey availability during the past 3-4 years. Capelin abundance is also affected by the earlier age of maturation which reduces the total number of older aged individuals in the population due to high post-spawning mortality. These combined effects have likely reduced the abundance of capelin available for harvest in 2018. The impact of fishing on the spawning stock biomass is unknown.

Figure 3: Spring (May) offshore acoustic abundance index of capelin in NAFO Div. 3L and southern Div. 3K (solid line) with 95% confidence intervals (broken lines). Source: 2018 SAR
Description

Figure 3: A graph displaying the annual NAFO Division 3L spring acoustic survey data from 1988 to 2017. There were no spring acoustic surveys in 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997, 1998, 2006, and 2016. The spring acoustic survey produces an abundance index (in billions) of the NAFO Divisions 2J3KL capelin stock. In 1988, the median capelin abundance index was 409 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 340 and a higher 95% confidence limit of 499. In 1989, the median capelin abundance was 366 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 312 and a higher 95% confidence limit of 439. In 1990, the median capelin abundance index was 464 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 346 and a higher 95% confidence limit of 642. In 1991, the median capelin abundance index was 16 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 8 and a higher 95% confidence limit of 59. In 1992, the median capelin abundance index was 19 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 16 and a higher 95% confidence limit of 25. In 1996, the median capelin abundance index was 3 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 2 and a higher 95% confidence limit of 5. In 1999, the median capelin abundance index was 17 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 11 and a higher 95% confidence limit of 33. In 2000, the median capelin abundance index was 11 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 9 and a higher 95% confidence limit of 14. In 2001, the median capelin abundance index was 11 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 7 and a higher 95% confidence limit of 32. In 2002, the median capelin abundance index was 6 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 5 and a higher 95% confidence limit of 8. In 2003, the median capelin abundance index was 9 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 7 billion and a higher 95% confidence limit of 17 billion. In 2004, the median capelin abundance index was 12, with a lower 5% confidence level of 9 billion and a higher 95% confidence limit of 21 billion. In 2005, the median capelin abundance index was 6 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 4 billion and a higher 95% confidence limit of 24 billion. In 2007, the median capelin abundance index was 28 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 22 billion and a higher 95% confidence limit of 45 billion. In 2008, the median capelin abundance index was 22 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 18 billion and a higher 95% confidence limit of 44 billion. In 2009, the median capelin abundance index was 29 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 26 billion and a higher 95% confidence limit of 39 billion. In 2010, the median capelin abundance index was 2 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 1 billion and a higher 95% confidence limit of 5 billion. In 2011, the median capelin abundance index was 19 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 15 billion and a higher 95% confidence limit of 30 billion. In 2012, the median capelin abundance index was 23 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 19 billion and a higher 95% confidence limit of 42 billion. In 2013, the median capelin abundance index was 54 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 35 billion and a higher 95% confidence limit of 90 billion. In 2014, the median capelin abundance index was 122 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 104 billion and a higher 95% confidence limit of 150 billion. In 2015, the median capelin abundance index was 63 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 47 billion and a higher 95% confidence limit of 88 billion. In 2017, the median capelin abundance index was 18 billion, with a lower 5% confidence level of 16 billion and a higher 95% confidence limit of 25 billion. This data is used to provide science advice on the Divisions 2J3KL capelin stock to Fisheries Management . This survey encompasses a capelin nursery area and is mainly targeted at the immature age-2 portion of the stock.

Figure 4: Standardized capelin larval abundance index from Trinity Bay. Positive numbers are considered above average years and negative numbers are considered below average years. Source: Capelin SAR2018
Description

Figure 4: A standardized index displaying the average larval abundance from Bellevue Beach inshore area, Trinity Bay from 2002 to 2017. In 2002, the capelin larval abundance was below average. In 2003, the capelin larval abundance was below average. In 2004, the capelin larval abundance was below average. In 2005, the capelin larval abundance was above average. In 2006, the capelin larval abundance was above average. In 2007, the capelin larval abundance was above average. In 2008, the capelin larval abundance was average. In 2009, the capelin larval abundance was average. In 2010, the capelin larval abundance was below average. In 2011, the capelin larval abundance was above average. In 2012, the capelin larval abundance was above average. In 2013, the capelin larval abundance was above average. In 2014, the capelin larval abundance was below average. In 2015, the capelin larval abundance was below average. In 2016, the capelin larval abundance was below average. In 2017, the capelin larval abundance was below average. This abundance index is used in the capelin stock assessment to provide advice to Fisheries Management on the status of the stock.

2.6 Precautionary approach

The Precautionary Approach in fisheries management is about being cautious when scientific knowledge is uncertain and not using the absence of adequate scientific information as a reason to postpone or fail to take action to avoid serious harm to fish stocks or their ecosystems. This approach is widely accepted as an essential part of sustainable fisheries management. Applying the Precautionary Approach to fisheries management decisions entails establishing a harvest strategy that:

2.7 Research

A primary goal of the DFO Science branch is to provide high quality knowledge, products and scientific advice on Canadian aquatic ecosystems and living resources, with a vision of safe, healthy, productive waters and aquatic ecosystems. DFO conducts research activities both independently and in collaboration with other organizations. Current research projects on capelin include the development of a forecast model for capelin biomass, identifying the drivers of recruitment variability in capelin, and comparative capelin diet studies.

3.0 Economic, social and cultural importance of the fishery

3.1 Socio-economic profile

The TAC for capelin in NAFO Division 2+3 was 30,496 tonnes from 2008 to 2010 and from 2015 to 2017 where it now remains. From 2011 to 2014, it was reduced to 24,396 tonnes.

Capelin landings declined from approximately 28,908 tonnes in 2008 to 15,472 in 2010. This was followed by a steady increase in the subsequent six years, reaching 27,394 tonnes in 2016, before a decline to 19,917 tonnes in 2017.

In 2016, the 2+3 capelin fishery was open from mid-July to mid-August. The fixed gear sector accounted for approximately 66% of total capelin landings that year, while the mobile gear sector accounted for approximately 33%. A similar pattern appeared in 2017 with fixed gear accounting for about 63% and mobile gear for 37% of landings.

In 2016, landings occurred in 42 ports around Newfoundland and Labrador, of which nine accounted for over half of total capelin landings in 2+3. The top capelin landing ports (in terms of volume) were Port De Grave, Hickman’s Harbor, Leading Tickles, Burnside, Harbour Grace, Dover, Triton, Englee, and Fleur De Lys. This trend continued in 2017 with Port De Grave, Hickman’s Harbor and Leading Tickles as the top three ports for capelin landings.

Figure 5: Landing data from 2008 to 2017. Source: Fisheries Management – Total allowable catch; policy and economics – landings, DFO NL region. (Data is preliminary and subject to revision)
Description

Figure 5: A bar graph displaying the (2+3KL) capelin total allowable catch (TAC) landing data from 2008 to 2017. In 2008, the total allowable catch was 30,396 tonnes and there was 28,908 tonnes landed. In 2009, the total allowable catch was 30,396 tonnes and there was 23,179 tonnes landed. In 2010, the total allowable catch was 30,396 tonnes and there was 15,472 tonnes landed. In 2011, the total allowable catch was 24,396 tonnes and there was 20,133 tonnes landed. In 2012, the total allowable catch was 24,396 tonnes and there was 22,308 tonnes landed. In 2013, the total allowable catch was 24,396 tonnes and there was 23,755 tonnes landed. In 2014, the total allowable catch was 24,396 tonnes and there was 23,188 tonnes landed. In 2015, the total allowable catch was 30,396 tonnes and there was 25,021 tonnes landed. In 2016, the total allowable catch was 30,396 tonnes and there was 27,394 tonnes landed. In 2017, the total allowable catch was 30,396 tonnes and there was 19,917 tonnes landed.

3.2 Viability and market trends

The landed value of 2+3 capelin increased steadily from a low of approximately $1.8 million in 2008 to a peak of just over $10 million in 2016. Landed value subsequently declined to about $6 million in 2017.  

The average price per pound has fluctuated annually. In 2008, the average price was relatively high at $0.12 per pound, followed by a significant decline in 2010, and an increase over the next six years to a high of $0.17 per pound in 2016. The price subsequently declined to $0.14 per pound in 2017. See figure 6.

Capelin fisheries in other countries can be a factor in influencing the level of demand and price for Newfoundland and Labrador capelin. Of note, the capelin fishery in the Barents Sea will re-open in 2018 after two years without fishing. The new quota will be shared between Norway and Russia and will be set at 205,000 tonnes. Also of note, Iceland raised its capelin quota by 87% to 299,000 tonnes in 2017, but this is expected to be reduced to 208,000 tonnes for 2018.

The capelin fishery in these countries typically peaks during the months of January to March, much earlier than the capelin fishery in Newfoundland and Labrador.

Figure 6: Landed Value 2008 to 2017. Source: Policy and Economics Branch, DFO NL Region. (Data is preliminary and subject to revision)
Description

Figure 6: A bar graph displaying the (2+3KL) capelin landed value in millions and the price per pound from 2008 to 2017. In 2008, the landed value was $7.2 million and the price per pound was $0.12. In 2009, the landed value was $3.6 million and the price per pound was $0.07. In 2010, the landed value was $1.9 million and the price per pound was $0.06. In 2011, the landed value was $3.6 million and the price per pound was $0.08. In 2012, the landed value was $4.8 million and the price per pound was $0.10. In 2013, the landed value was $4.7 million and the price per pound was $0.09. In 2014, the landed value was $7.4 million and the price per pound was $0.14. In 2015, the landed value was $7.0 million and the price per pound was $0.13. In 2016, the landed value was $10.1 million and the price per pound was $0.17. In 2017, the landed value was $6.1 million and the price per pound was $0.14.

3.3 Dependence on capelin

The following section provides an overview of capelin dependence and is based solely on inshore and nearshore enterprises that harvested 2+3 capelin in 2016.  “Dependence” in this instance is considered to be the percentage contribution of capelin to the total landed value of all species harvested by these enterprises.

In 2016, there were 218 active <35’ enterprises with capelin landings. Capelin accounted for 22% of the total landed value of all species harvested by these enterprises in 2+3. The vast majority of enterprises in this fleet sector were primarily dependent on snow crab, which accounted for about 55% of the total landed value. The remaining landed value was comprised of cod (14%), lobster (2%), sea urchins (1.5%) and other species (6%).

In 2016, there were 210 active 35’ to 64’11’’ enterprises with capelin landings in 2+3. Capelin accounted for only about 12% of total landed value for these enterprises. Snow crab was the most significant species, accounting for approximately 65% of the total landed value. The remaining landed value was comprised of shrimp (8%), turbot (5%), cod (3%), herring (2%), mackerel (2%) and other species (3%). 

In 2016, the provincial Department of Fisheries and Land Resources reported that approximately 28,704 tonnes of capelin was processed by 26 plants. This includes capelin fisheries based in NAFO Divisions 2+3 and 4R3Pn.

3.4 Exports

Canadian exports of capelin consist exclusively of mature egg-bearing females in order to supply the Asian market with roe. The roe product is exported whole and frozen. Japanese consumers are very fond of capelin eggs (and other pelagic fish eggs); these eggs are commonly used in sushi and referred to as "masago" (a product related to caviar).

According to Statistics Canada, in 2016, the total Newfoundland and Labrador capelin exports were approximately 18,622 tonnes, with a total export value of approximately $36.7 million.  

In 2016, China was the most significant export destination for NL capelin products with 38% of NL Capelin export value. Other top export destinations included: United States (18%), Taiwan (13%), Vietnam (9%), Japan (7%) and Thailand (5%). Less significant destinations included South Korea, Georgia, Hong Kong and Ukraine.

Figure 7
Figure 7: Newfoundimg/figure7-eng.jpgland and Labrador capelin exports by country of destination based on export value (2016). Source: Statistics Canada
Description

Figure 7: A pie chart displaying the (2+3KL) capelin exports by country of destination based on expert value out of Newfoundland & Labrador. The countries that receive Newfoundland and Labrador’s exported capelin are China, United States, Taiwan, Vietnam, Japan, Thailand, South Korea, Georgia, Hong Kong, Ukraine and others. China received 38% of the total capelin exported. United States received 18% of the total capelin exported. Taiwan received 13% of the total capelin exported. Vietnam received 9% of the total capelin exported. Japan received 7% of the total capelin exported. Thailand received 5% of the total capelin exported. South Korea received 2% of the total capelin exported. Georgia received 2% of the total capelin exported. Hong Kong received 2% of the total capelin exported. Ukraine received 1% of the total capelin exported. Others received 2% of the total capelin exported.

4.0 Management issues

4.1 Interaction with Atlantic salmon

The issue of the interaction of Atlantic salmon and the capelin fishery has been discussed with industry at capelin advisory meetings, and measures have been taken in the commercial capelin fishery to mitigate the by-catch of Atlantic salmon and to protect their migration.

4.2 By-catch concerns

One notable concern is by-catch of salmon and cod taken by pelagic traps. This issue has been discussed with industry over the past several years and measures were taken to minimize the potential for salmon by-catch in the commercial fishery.

4.3 Gear impacts

Modified bar seines, or tuck seines as they are commonly referred to, are bar seines fitted with rings that allow the bottom and sides of the seine to be brought or hauled together. The use of these seines has been authorized in the fixed gear herring, capelin and mackerel fisheries in 2+3 and 4R in recent years, following consultations with stakeholders in advisory committee meetings.

Capelin gear used in DFO Newfoundland and Labrador region are considered to have an insignificant to low impact to the ecosystem. Although some seine nets do touch the bottom from time to time, the impact on benthic species and habitats is minimal.

4.4 Barging

On occasion fish harvesters were known to undertake the practice of “barging” in pelagic fisheries. The practice of barging involves one vessel actively fishing and supplying one or more inactive participants with catch. The inactive participants were not geared up to actively participate in fishing operations. Fish harvesters are encouraged to review their license conditions for details as this practice is not permitted, i.e. all participants must be geared-up.

4.5 Oceans initiatives in marine conservation

The Government of Canada has achieved its target of protecting 5% of Canada’s marine and coastal areas by the end of 2017 and remains committed to protecting 10% by 2020. The 2020 target is both a domestic target (Canada’s Biodiversity Target 1) and an international target as reflected in the Convention on Biological Diversity’s Aichi Target 11 and the United Nations General Assembly’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development under Goal 14. The 2017 and 2020 targets are collectively referred to as Canada’s Marine Conservation Targets. For additional information please refer to Canada’s Marine Conservation Targets.

To meet these targets, Canada is establishing Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and “other effective area-based conservation measures” (Other Measures), in consultation with industry, non-governmental organizations, and other interested parties. Some existing Fisheries Act closures have met the criteria for “other measures”.

In recognition of the need to sustainably manage Canada’s fisheries and oceans using an ecosystem approach with a focus on conserving biodiversity, DFO is leading initiatives in marine conservation planning in the Newfoundland and Labrador region. A network of Marine Protected Areas (Oceans Act MPAs and other protected areas) and Other Measures (e.g. Fisheries Act closures) is currently being developed in the Newfoundland and Labrador Shelves and the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (EGSL) Bioregions.

The Newfoundland and Labrador Shelves Bioregion covers approximately one million km2, extending from Cape Chidley at the northern tip of Labrador to the southern Grand Banks and the south coast of Newfoundland. The EGSL Bioregion covers 231,193 km2, bounded to the east by a jagged line that stretches from approximately Bay St. Lawrence, Nova Scotia to Port-aux-Basques, Newfoundland and Labrador, and to the north by a line drawn south of Henley Harbour, Newfoundland and Labrador to approximately Raleigh, Newfoundland and Labrador and along Quebec’s southern coast to the west.

The EGSL includes NAFO division 4RST and involves three DFO regions: Quebec, Gulf and Newfoundland and Labrador. Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) which have been identified within the two Bioregions will play an important role in the MPA Network.

The primary goal of a MPA Network is to provide long-term protection of marine biodiversity, ecosystem function and special natural features. Capelin is included in the Conservation Priorities for the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence MPA Network.

map of Newfoundland and Labrador Shelves Bioregion (displayed as light blue) and the Gulf of St. Lawrence Bioregion (displayed as dark blue)
Figure 8: Map of NL and Gulf of St. Lawrence bioregion

4.6 Habitat considerations

DFO seeks to conserve and protect fish habitat that supports Canada’s fisheries resource through application of the fisheries protection provisions of the Fisheries Act. A key provision of the Fisheries Act is subsection 35 which prohibits the carrying on of a work, undertaking or activity that results in serious harm to fish that are part of or support a commercial, recreational or Aboriginal fishery without an authorization from the Minister.

The Fisheries Protection Program provides advice to proponents to enable them to proactively avoid and mitigate the effects of projects on fish and fish habitat, undertakes the review of proposed works, undertakings and activities that may affect fish and fish habitat, and ensures compliance with the Fisheries Act and the Species at Risk Act by issuing authorizations and permits, when appropriate, with conditions for offsetting, monitoring, and reporting.

4.7 Aquatic invasive species (AIS)

Green crab have been found in coastal areas of 4R, particularly near Bonne Bay and in Bay St. George, as far north as Port Saunders.

In NAFO division 4R some invasive tunicates have been located. The Membranipora membranacea (coffin box bryozoan) has the most significant impact as it invades kelp beds and breaks off the blades of seaweed, therefore reducing and impacting commercial fish nurseries using this habitat.

In NAFO divisions 3P, 3L and 4R some invasive tunicates have been detected in coastal areas, with invasive populations of concern located in Burin, Little Bay and Marystown (Ciona intestinalis vase tunicate) and Belleoram harbours (Botrylloides violaceus violet tunicate). 

Best practices to prevent the introduction and spread of AIS include:

More information and maps of aquatic invasive species in Newfoundland and Labrador can be found in the Identify an Aquatic Invasive Species section.

4.8 Catch monitoring

Return of logbooks and catch reporting are mandatory in this fishery. These are important tools for the overall management of the fishery, including quota monitoring and the Science assessment process. Failure to return logbooks may impact in-season quota monitoring.

4.9 International issues

In August 2016, National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) published a final rule (81 FR 54390; August 15, 2016) implementing the fish and fish product import provisions (section 101(a)(2)) of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). This rule established conditions for evaluating a harvesting nation's regulatory programs to address incidental and intentional mortality and serious injury of marine mammals in fisheries operated by nations that export fish and fish products to the United States (U.S).

Under this rule, fish or fish products cannot be imported into the U.S. from commercial fishing operations that result in the incidental mortality or serious injury of marine mammals in excess of U.S. standards.

The U.S. requires Canadian commercial fishery bycatch numbers for comparability findings. If the findings show that Canadian fishing operations are equal/on par with U.S. standards, then Canadian fisheries can continue to export their goods to the U.S.

Canada must meet these standards by December 31, 2021 or we can no longer export fish that do not meet these standards to the U.S.

5.0 Objectives

Long-term objectives

DFO strives to manage the 2+3 capelin fishery based on the principles of stock conservation, sustainable harvest, and ecosystem health and sustainability. Using the following short and long-term objectives as guideposts, various management measures have been implemented or are being developed that will maximize the benefit of this resource.

5.1 Stock conservation and sustainable harvest

Conservation and the long-term sustainability of the capelin stock is one of the most important objectives for DFO. It is vital that the stock grow and provide benefits for all stakeholders in the short and long-term. DFO will work with all stakeholders to ensure this objective is achieved and that the capelin stock supports an economically viable and self-reliant fishery.

Harvesting levels will be set that allow for the stock to grow and the mature biomass to increase. Consideration will be given to the level of recruitment in this stock. Furthermore, the capelin fishery will be managed such that catches are not concentrated in ways that result in high exploitation rates on any of the stock components.

5.2 Ecosystem health and sustainability

Ecosystem health is essential for effective fisheries management. The sustainability of capelin as a species within the food web as both a prey species and a predator will strengthen the long-term health of the ecosystem.

5.3 Stewardship

The shared stewardship management objective recognizes that industry participants and all stakeholders must become involved in fisheries management policy development and the decision-making process. It also recognizes that achievement of the conservation objective requires that governments, resource users and other stakeholders share responsibility for the implementation of fisheries management decisions and for their outcomes.

6.0 Access and allocation

At this time, access is considered to be limited and allocations are considered to be stable. However the Minister can, for reasons of conservation or for any other valid reasons, modify access, allocations and sharing arrangements as outlined in this IFMP in accordance with the powers granted pursuant to the Fisheries Act.

6.1 Quotas and allocations

DFO is committed to economically prosperous fisheries and works with industry to ensure that fisheries are managed in such a way to achieve this goal. As such, DFO will consider, at the request of industry, the overrun of quotas in a particular Capelin Fishing Area (CFA), provided that there is sufficient uncaught quota in another CFA to ensure that the TAC will not be exceeded. In evaluating such a request, DFO will take the following points into consideration when forming a decision:

These decisions are made through direct consultation with industry as the fishery is occurring and require daily assessments of the condition and migration of capelin. As with all Resource Management decisions, conservation of the resource forms the foundation by which any decision to exceed the quota in a management area is made.

With the exception of Conception Bay, flexibility can be applied to the management of the mobile gear quotas to allow the removal of up to 2,300 tonnes by the purse seine fleet in any of the purse seine fleet areas subject to the constraints of the fleets overall quota.  Unless participation levels exceed projected levels, this flexibility, combined with the seasonal and daily limits, should allow fish harvesters to catch their share of capelin without having to move beyond an adjacent bay.

The Quota Reconciliation Policy will continue to apply should an overrun occur in the competitive fishery TAC. The same process is also in place for the IQ fisheries in White Bay and Notre Dame Bay. Overruns in the competitive and IQ fishery will be reconciled each year on a kilogram-for-kilogram basis. A review process will be established to verify catches before reconciliation is applied. This review process will occur within 30-60 days after the end of the season, after all data sources are received and have been analyzed.

Capelin Quota Reports for 2015-2017 are available in Appendix 4.

6.2 Communal commercial fisheries

Fisheries and Oceans Canada supports the participation of adjacent Indigenous organizations in commercial fisheries. The Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy Program (AFS) is designed to encourage Indigenous involvement in commercial fisheries and related economic opportunities. The Allocation Transfer Program (ATP) component of the AFS has been the primary instrument used to voluntarily retire licences from commercial harvesters and subsequently reissue them to Indigenous organizations on a communal basis.

A subsequent program, Aboriginal Aquatic Resource and Oceans Management (AAROM) Program, was designed for Indigenous groups to collaboratively develop capacity and expertise to facilitate their participation in aquatic resource and oceans management.

Fishing licences issued to Indigenous organizations are done so under the authority of the Aboriginal Communal Fishing Licenses Regulations.

6.3 Sharing arrangements

Commercial quotas are allocated by area, gear type and fleet shares which have been established through the advisory committee process. Quotas within each gear sector and area are fished competitively with the exception of a few defined IQ areas. The traditional fleet shares have recently stabilized.

7.0 Management measures

7.1 Capelin total allowable catch (TAC)

The Total Allowable Catch (TAC) for 2018 was set at 19,823 tonnes. The TAC was established based on the "Performance Report Approach" used to describe current stock status and future prospects, and the outcome of consultations with industry.

7.2 Fishing seasons/areas

DFO’s primary objective is to ensure that the majority of fish harvesters are provided an opportunity to earn a living and benefit from their adjacent fishing resources.

There are a number of factors DFO takes into consideration when establishing the season for the capelin fishery, including:

Season dates are regularly discussed in detail as part of the industry consultation process and recommendations are noted on all management measures during the advisory meeting. In the case of capelin, season dates are established according to bay or fishing area, and input from local fish harvesters is a key consideration.

Where it is challenging to reach a consensus in specific areas, further discussions with industry and fleet representatives may be required. For example, in a situation where many fish harvesters hold multi-species fishing enterprises and wish to maximize revenues and benefits from each commercial fishery, DFO may be required to conduct a survey of all eligible licence holders in consultation with fleet representatives to ensure a fair and transparent approach is undertaken.

Fishery openings and closings will be communicated through DFO’s Notice to Fish Harvesters system. Fishery openings may be delayed due to weather conditions. These decisions will be made in consultation with industry and openings will occur at 0600 hours whenever possible.

7.3 Decision rules

The measures outlined in the IFMP, combined with responsible fishing practices, should ensure that the conservation goals are met. However, if the fishery is not conducted in an orderly manner, DFO may implement additional management measures or controls in these fisheries.

7.4 Species at risk Act (SARA) requirements

In accordance with the recovery strategies for the northern wolffish (Anarchichas denticulatus), spotted wolffish (Anarchichas minor), and leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), the licence holder is permitted to carry out commercial fishing activities authorized under the Fisheries Act that may incidentally kill, harm, harass, capture or take the northern wolffish and/or spotted wolffish as per subsection 83(4) of the Species at Risk Act, and the license holder is permitted to carry out commercial fishing activities authorized under the Fisheries Act that are known to incidentally capture leatherback sea turtles.

Licence holders are required to return northern wolffish, spotted wolffish or leatherback sea turtle to the place from which it was taken, and where it is alive, in a manner that causes the least harm.

Licence holders are required to report in their logbooks any interaction with northern wolffish, spotted wolffish or leatherback sea turtles.

7.5 Licencing

The Newfoundland and Labrador 2+3 capelin fishery is governed by the Fisheries Act, and regulations and departmental policies made pursuant to the Act. Applicable regulations and policies include, but are not limited to:

The Fisheries Licensing Policy provides details on the various licensing policies that govern the commercial fishing industry in Newfoundland and Labrador Region, including species-specific policies applicable to the capelin fishery.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) Resource Management should be consulted for all purposes of interpreting and applying this document.

7.6 Dockside monitoring program

The requirement for all licence holders to have all capelin catches monitored at dockside (with the exception of capelin caught for personal use) will continue. The cost for this monitoring is the responsibility of the fishing industry. 

It is the responsibility of licence holders to ensure their catch is monitored by a DFO certified dockside monitoring company. Specific procedures for the monitoring of catch weights at dockside have been developed through consultation with industry and Dockside Monitoring Program (DMP) companies. DFO’s accepted method of verification of landings at dockside is a direct weight-out using certified weight scales.

7.7 Logbooks

Completing a logbook is mandatory under Section 61 of the Fisheries Act. Fish harvesters are required to record information about fishing catch and effort, and submit this data as specified in the conditions of licence. Fish harvesters are responsible for obtaining their own logbook. Information that should be in your logbook includes:

Include information on anything else you think may be useful to you or DFO. Note that marine mammal mitigation measures are now mandatory and you must report all interactions. Failure to submit a logbook may result in enforcement action.

7.8 Individual quota (IQ) regimes

In 2+3, portions of White Bay and Notre Dame Bay have IQ fisheries. The main elements of any IQ regime for consideration include:

7.9 Habitat protection measures

Due to the low impact of the capelin fishery on habitat in 2+3, no specific habitat protection measures have been identified. 

7.10 Sharing

In order to prosecute an orderly harvest and prevent unfair competition, licence conditions provide a definition of “geared up” and the requirements to “share” excess catch by both receiving and providing vessels. To be considered geared up when fishing purse seine, bar seine or modified bar seine, a vessel must be equipped with a purse seine, bar seine or modified bar seine, an operational power block and a tow off vessel.

In order to share excess fish, a harvester must be fully loaded and then share excess catch with a vessel in the same fleet sector that is “geared up”. In order to receive excess fish, a harvester must be fully geared up and receive catch from a vessel in the same fleet sector.

Note that the practice of barging (or supplying one or more inactive participants with catch) is not permitted in this fishery [see section 4.4].

7.11 Atlantic salmon mitigation measures

One notable concern is by-catch of salmon and cod taken by pelagic traps. This issue has been discussed with industry over the past several years and measures were taken to minimize the potential for salmon by-catch in the commercial fishery:

Any incidental catch of cod or salmon must be immediately returned to the water, and where it is alive in a manner that causes the least harm.

7.12 Concentration of fishing effort and catches

The majority of the fishing effort and catch occurs in a relatively small part of the overall stock area (especially in the case of the purse seine fishery). How this may impact on local stock components or the stock as a whole is unclear. In view of this uncertainty, it is preferable for the fishery to take place throughout a stock area or over as wide a geographic area as possible.

7.13 Sub-division of fixed gear quota

The current management regime allows fully competitive gear quotas to be applied over geographically large management areas. As a result, fish harvesters in one sector of a quota area may be advantaged by the early arrival of harvestable capelin and therefore have an opportunity to land a greater share of the quota. Conversely, fish harvesters in other locations of the quota area may not see harvestable capelin until later in the season and possibly not until after the entire quota has been taken and the commercial fishery closed. 

Proponents of management area sub-divisions argue that this approach promotes a more equitable harvesting opportunity for all licence holders in those cases where there is no industry consensus to implement Individual Quotas. Fixed gear area sub-divisions under the current management plan are listed in Appendix 4.

7.14 Modified bar seines

Modified bar seines (or tuck seines as they are more commonly known) are bar seines fitted with rings that allow the bottom and sides of the seine to be brought or hauled together. In recent years, the use of these seines has been authorized in the fixed gear herring, capelin and mackerel fishery in 2+3 based on consultations with the appropriate advisory committee. 

The maximum tuck seine length allowed in the capelin fishery is 80 fathoms. Fixed gear capelin fish harvesters are authorized by way of licence conditions to use modified bar seines during the 2017 season. 

7.15 Trip limits

In 1990, at the request of industry, a 22,680 kg (50,000 pound) trip limit was implemented in the purse seine fishery in 2J3KL and 3Ps. This measure was introduced as a measure to slow the rate of harvesting and provide equitable harvesting opportunities for small capacity seiners. In 2005, in consultation with industry, trip limits were discontinued for the purse seine fleet in 2J3KL and 3Ps and replaced with a daily limit of 31,780 kg (70,000 lbs).

For the purse seine fleet in 2018, a daily limit is set at 22,690 kg (50,000 lbs) with a seasonal cap of 190,680 kgs (420,000 lbs). These management measures for the capelin fishery in 2J3KL and 3Ps will continue in order to slow the harvest rate and improve quota monitoring. These measures should improve the quality and value of fish landed, while allowing for maximum utilization of available harvest.

For fixed gear in all bays in 2018, a 15,890 kgs (35,000 lbs) daily limit applies.

8.0 Shared stewardship arrangements

There are no formal shared stewardship arrangements in the capelin fishery. However as noted throughout the IFMP, DFO officials work closely with the harvesting and processing sectors in all aspects of fisheries management, science, and conservation and protection.

8.1 Oceans management initiatives promoting shared stewardship

DFO is leading initiatives in integrated oceans management, including MPA network planning within the Newfoundland and Labrador Shelves and Estuary, and Gulf of St. Lawrence Bioregions. This provides a collaborative governance model founded on principles of shared responsibility. As a result, stewardship is promoted by providing a forum for consultation with stakeholders who want to be engaged in marine resource or activity management decisions that affect them.

Aligning integrated oceans management with fisheries management plans will support evidence-based resource use and fisheries management decisions. These decisions will be made with input from multiple interests, including commercial fisheries and other stakeholder groups.

9.0 Compliance plan

9.1 Conservation and Protection program description

The deployment of Conservation and Protection (C&P) resources in the fishery is conducted in accordance with management plan objectives, as well as in response to emerging issues. The mix of enforcement options available and over-riding conservation objectives determine the level and type of enforcement activity. 

Work plans at the regional, area and detachment levels are designed to establish priorities based on management objectives and conservation concerns. The monitoring and evaluation elements of enforcement work plans facilitate in-season adjustments should conservation concerns and/or significant occurrences of non-compliance emerge.

9.2 Compliance performance

The Conservation and Protection program promotes and maintains compliance with legislation, regulations and management measures implemented to achieve the conservation and sustainable use of Canada’s aquatic resources, and the protection of species at risk, fish habitat and oceans.

The program is delivered through a balanced regulatory management and enforcement approach. Specifically:

Pillar 1: Education and shared stewardship

Conservation and Protection officers actively participate in consultation processes with the fishing industry and Indigenous groups to address compliance issues. Informal meetings with stakeholders also occur on an ad-hoc basis to resolve in-season matters, in addition to regular interaction with fish harvesters. The consultative process may include C&P membership on area integrated management planning committees, which are comprised of fish harvesters, representatives from the provincial and federal governments, and other community groups with an interest in fishery conservation issues.

Fishery officers also visit local schools and educational institutions to present and discuss fisheries conservation issues and use this information as part of the C&P planning process.

Pillar 2: Monitoring, control and surveillance

Compliance monitoring

C&P promotes compliance with management measures governing the fishery through:

Patrols by vehicle, vessel and fixed-wing aircraft are conducted in accordance with operational plans which are developed based on available intelligence.

Each C&P detachment ensures that monitoring and inspections of fish landing activity are carried out on a routine basis. Where a vessel is selected for comprehensive inspection, C&P ensures that catch composition, weight verification and size variation sampling is conducted. C&P also ensures that surveillance flights are conducted on a routine basis. 

The VMS system provides real-time data on the location of vessels within portions of this fleet. C&P uses this resource to help determine where the enterprise is fishing, the port of destination and the estimated time of arrival to port. VMS data will also be relied upon for future analysis and comparisons of fishing activity.  

At-sea observers are randomly deployed to observe, record and report aspects of the fishing activity. The resulting data is used to compare catch composition of vessels on observed trips vs. non-observed trips. C&P also reviews quota monitoring reports to ensure individual quotas are not exceeded.

C&P supplies best-known available local information to the National Fisheries Intelligence service for processing and uses this intelligence to combat all types of illegal fishing activity. 

Compliance performance

C&P conducts post-season analysis sessions to review issues encountered during the previous season and to make recommendations on improving management measures. The initial sessions are conducted at the area level, followed by a regional session with other DFO sectors.

Pillar 3: Major case

C&P recognizes the need to focus attention on high-risk illegal activities that pose significant threat to the achievement of conservation objectives, which usually cannot be addressed through education or routine monitoring. Some individuals, usually motivated by financial gain, persist through various complex and well-coordinated means in hiding illegal activities which put Canada’s aquatic resources at risk. 

C&P will focus on high-risk illegal activities that pose significant conservation threats. Detailed analysis of licence holders and possibly companies will be completed using:

Targeting of high risk violators and / or processing facilities will be also be a primary focus should intelligence gathered warrant such action. Any resulting operations will be conducted in conjunction with NFIS staff, additional field staff and area resources as required.

9.3 Current compliance issues

Compliance issues in this fishery include:

Capelin will be a primary focus of C&P efforts for the duration of this IFMP.

C&P will focus enforcement effort on:

Special attention will be given to inspecting tuck seines (including pre-season inspections), barging and quota monitoring, as well as by-catch of salmon and enforcing closures.

9.4 Compliance strategy

C&P has developed an operational plan that outlines monitoring and compliance activities that will be carried out by C&P personnel adjacent to the capelin management areas. The plan provides guidance for C&P, promotes effective monitoring of the fishery, and enables C&P personnel to effectively maintain compliance with management measures governing this fishery. The objective of the plan is to collect information for ensuring compliance and conducting investigations.

The objective is to collect information for ensuring compliance and conducting investigations. Sources of information used by C&P include:

10.0 Performance review

A review of the short-term and long-term objectives during the two-year planning cycle is an integral part of assessing the performance of the fishery. During the regional assessment process on the status of the stock, DFO Science may consider the applicable objectives in providing its advice. For fisheries management, the advisory meeting with industry is a formal setting to review both short and long-term objectives. In addition to these formal reviews, DFO officials and industry representatives have an on-going dialogue on the fishery on a year-round basis. These informal discussions provide opportunities to review objectives and identify issues for discussion at the annual advisory meeting.

DFO NL Region completes an annual internal post-season review with participation from Resource Management, Conservation and Protection, and Science staff. Regional headquarters and area-based staff participate in this process to identify local, area and regional fishery performance issues. DFO undertakes every effort to outline steps to address the issues, including assigning responsibility and setting timelines for completion. Those items not resolved during the post-season review are carried forward to the following year to be addressed.

The Performance Review outlines the activities and controls that are used in achieving fisheries management objectives. Table 1 identifies the specific strategies that are used to achieve fisheries management objectives.

Table 1: Measurable objectives/activities and fisheries management strategies
OBJECTIVES FISHERIES MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
Conservation and Sustainable Harvest
To conserve the capelin resource to provide commercial sustainability to fish harvesters
  • Fishing season
  • Total Allowable Catch
  • Quota monitoring
To mitigate the impacts on other species, habitat and the ecosystem where capelin fishing occurs, protecting biodiversity and ecosystem structure and function
  • Mandatory reporting of lost gear
  • Prohibit the use of monofilament netting material
  • Species at Risk Act
To promote the development of sustainable fishing practices
  • Minimum size possession limit
To employ effective monitoring and surveillance tools and mechanisms that ensure compliance with conservation measures and provide scientists with appropriate information and basic data required to manage the capelin fishery
  • Accurate completion of logbooks
  • Reliable dockside monitoring program
  • Adequate level of at-sea observer coverage, both spatial and temporal
  • Adherence to electronic vessel monitoring system (VMS) requirements
Benefits to Stakeholders
To promote the continued development of a commercially viable and self-sustaining fishery
  • Aboriginal access and allocation formulas are maintained in the IFMP and opportunities for additional access are addressed through the Allocation Transfer Program
To provide fish harvesters with increased opportunity to develop long-term business stability
  • Stable sharing arrangement
  • Evergreen management plans

To promote a co-management approach, providing stakeholders with an effective sharing of responsibility, accountability and decision making, within the constraints of the Fisheries Act

  • Establish an effective consultative process for stakeholders to participate in the decision-making process
  • Organize and participate in annual advisory meetings
  • Improve management of fishery through co-management

Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) measures the performance of the fisheries that it manages through the Sustainability Survey for Fisheries (SFF). The survey is published every year and currently includes 170 fish stocks, with more added each year. The fish stocks were selected because of their economic or cultural importance; they represent the majority of total catch of fisheries managed by DFO.

The Sustainability Survey for Fisheries reports on the status of each fish stock and DFO’s progress to implement its Sustainable Fisheries Framework policies, a set of national policies to guide the sustainable management of Canada’s fisheries.

11.0 Glossary of terms

Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge: knowledge that is held by and unique to Aboriginal peoples. It is a living body of knowledge that is cumulative and dynamic, and adapted over time to reflect changes in the social, economic, environmental, spiritual and political spheres of the Aboriginal knowledge holders. It often includes knowledge about the land and its resources, spiritual beliefs, language, mythology, culture, laws, customs and medicines.

Abundance: number of individuals in a stock or a population

Age Composition: proportion of individuals of different ages in a stock or in the catches

Anadromous: a species such as Atlantic salmon that spends most of its life at sea but returns to fresh water grounds to spawn in the river it comes from

Area/Subarea: an area defined by the Convention on Future Multilateral Cooperation in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries by NAFO, and as described in the Atlantic Fishery Regulations, 1985

Biomass: total weight of all individuals in a stock or a population

Bioregion: a biogeographic division of Canada's marine waters out to the edge of the Exclusive Economic Zone, and including the Great Lakes, based on attributes such as bathymetry, influence of freshwater inflows, distribution of multi-year ice, and species distribution. Canada’s marine protected areas network is being advanced in five priority marine bioregions: the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Scotian Shelf, the Newfoundland-Labrador Shelves, the Western Arctic, and the Northern Shelf

By-catch: the unintentional catch of one species when the target is another species

Catch per unit effort (CPUE): the amount caught for a given fishing effort, e.g. tonnes of shrimp per tow or kilograms of fish per hundred longline hooks

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):  committee of experts who assess and designate which wild species are in some danger of disappearing from Canada

Communal commercial licence: licence issued to Aboriginal organizations pursuant to the Aboriginal Communal Fishing Licences Regulations for participation in the general commercial fishery

Discards: portion of a catch thrown back into the water after it is caught in fishing gear

Dockside Monitoring Program (DMP): A monitoring program conducted by a company that has been designated by DFO to verify the species composition and landed weight of all fish landed from a commercial fishing vessel

Ecosystem-based management: taking into account species interactions and the interdependencies between species and their habitats when making resource management decisions

Fishing effort: quantity of effort using a given fishing gear over a given period of time

Fishing mortality: death caused by fishing, often symbolized by the mathematical symbol F

Fixed gear: a type of fishing gear that is set in a stationary position. This includes traps, weirs, gillnets, longlines, handlines, bar/beach seines and modified bar seines (known as tuck seines)

Food, social and ceremonial (FSC): a fishery conducted by Aboriginal groups for food, social and ceremonial purposes

Gillnet: fishing gear: netting with weights on the bottom and floats at the top used to catch fish. Gillnets can be set at different depths and are anchored to the seabed

Groundfish: species of fish living near the bottom such as cod, haddock, halibut and flatfish

Handlining: fishing using a line with usually one baited hook and moving it up and down in a series of short movements; also called "jigging"

Landings: quantity of a species caught and landed

Longlining: using long lines with a series of baited hooks to catch fish

Maximum sustainable yield: largest average catch that can continuously be taken from a stock

Mesh size: size of the mesh of a net. Different fisheries have different minimum mesh size regulations

Mobile gear: any type of fishing gear that is drawn through the water by a vessel to entrap fish, including purse seines

Natural mortality: mortality due to natural causes, represented by the mathematical symbol M

Observer coverage:  carrying a certified at-sea observer onboard a fishing vessel for a specific period of time to verify the amount of fish caught, the area in which it was caught and the method by which it was caught

Otolith: structure of the inner ear of fish, made of calcium carbonate. Also called "ear bone" or "ear stone". Otoliths are examined to determine the age of fish as annual rings can be observed and counted. Daily increments are also visible on larval otoliths

Pelagic: fish that lives in the water column or close to the surface

Population: group of individuals of the same species, forming a breeding unit, and sharing a habitat

Precautionary approach: set of agreed cost-effective measures and actions, including future courses of action, which ensures prudent foresight, reduces or avoids risk to the resource, the environment, and the people, to the extent possible, taking explicitly into account existing uncertainties and the potential consequences of being wrong

Purse seine: large net used to encircle fish and equipped with a wire rope on the bottom to draw the net together. A small boat, called a "skiff", participates in manoeuvring the net.

Quota: portion of the Total Allowable Catch that a fleet, vessel class, association, country, etc. is permitted to take from a stock in a given period of time

Recruitment: the number of individuals growing large enough to become part of the exploitable stock, e.g. that can be caught in a fishery

Research survey: survey at sea, on a research vessel, allowing scientists to obtain information on the abundance and distribution of various species and/or collect oceanographic data  (e.g., bottom trawl survey, plankton survey, hydroacoustic survey, etc.)

Species at Risk Act (SARA):  a federal law enabling the Government to take action to prevent wildlife species from becoming extinct and secure the necessary actions for their recovery. It provides the legal protection of wildlife species and the conservation of their biological diversity.

Spawner: sexually mature individual

Spawning stock: sexually mature individuals in a stock

Stock: a population of individuals of one species found in a particular area, and used as a unit for fisheries management, e.g. NAFO area 4R Herring

Stock assessment: scientific evaluation of the status of a fish stock within a particular area in a given time period

Total allowable catch (TAC): the amount of catch that may be taken from a stock

Traditional ecological knowledge: a cumulative body of knowledge and beliefs, handed down through generations by cultural transmission, about the relationship of living beings (including humans) with one another and with their environment

Tonne: metric tonne, 1000kg or 2204.6 lbs

Trawl: fishing gear; a cone-shaped net towed in the water by a boat called a "trawler". Bottom trawls are towed along the ocean floor to catch species such as groundfish, while mid-water trawls are towed through the water column

Validation: the verification by an observer of the weight of fish landed

Vessel size: length overall

Year-class: individuals of a same stock born in a particular year, also called "cohort"

Appendix 1: Stock assessment results

Science advice, proceedings and stocks assessments/scientific evaluations resulting from Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat (CSAS) meetings are available in the CSAS publications section. 

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) research documents and associated reports are available on the NAFO website.

Appendix 2: Management measures for the duration of the plan

This Integrated Fisheries Management Plan, combined with responsible fishing practices, should ensure that the conservation goals are met. However, if the fishery is not conducted in an orderly manner, DFO may implement additional management measures or controls in these fisheries.

Appendix 3: 2+3 Capelin advisory committee membership

Name Organization Name DFO
Floyd Stockley Notre Dame Seafoods Erin Dunne Resource Management
Karl Sullivan Barry Group Derek Tobin Resource Management
Pearce Perry Beothuk David Small Area Resource Mgt
Edgar Coffey Quinsea Laurie Hawkins Area Resource Mgt
John Boland FFAW Wayne King Area Resource Mgt
Roland Hedderson FFAW Chad Ward Conservation & Protection
Monty Way FFAW Paul Glavine Policy & Economics
Robbie Green Fish harvester Fran Mowbray Science
Ivan Batten Fish harvester Hannah Murphy Science
Eldred Woodford Fish harvester Jason Burton Fish harvester
Shelley White Fish harvester Albert Wells Fish harvester
Neil Stuckless Fish harvester Dennis Chaulk Fish harvester
Wayne Hicks Fish harvester Everett Roberts Fish harvester
Trevor Jones Fish harvester Gord Rice Fish harvester
Michael Simmonds Fish harvester Doug Wells Fish harvester
    Brad Rideout Fish harvester

Appendix 4: Allocation table 2018

NAFO Quota Definition Quota (M.T.)
2J Labrador - Fixed Gear < 65' 78
  Sub-Total 78
3K White Bay - Mobile Gear < 65' 780
Notre Dame Bay - Mobile Gear < 65' 780
Cape Bauld to Fishott Island - Fixed Gear < 65' 502
Fishott Island to Cape Fox - Fixed Gear < 65' 169
Cape Fox to Hampton, Inclusive - Fixed Gear < 65' 663
Bottom of white Bay to Cape St. John - Fixed Gear < 65' 993
Cape St. John to North Head - Fixed Gear <65' 871
North Head to Dog Bay Point - fixed Gear <65' 1804
Dog Bay Point to Cape Freels - Fisxed Gear < 65' 406
Sub-Total 6,968
3L Bonavista Bay - Mobile Gear < 65' 741
Trinity Bay - Mobile Gear < 65' 973
Conception Bay - Mobile Gear < 65' 1850
St. Mary's Bay Mobile < 65' 874
Bonivista Bay - Fixed Gear < 65' 1298
Trinity Bay - Fixed Gear < 65' 2333
Conception Bay - Fixed Gear < 65' 1930
Cape St. Francis to Long Point - Fixed Gear < 65' 312
Long Point to Cape Neddick - Fixed Gear < 65' 208
Cape Neddick to Cape Pine - Fixed Gear < 65' 60
Cape Neddick to Cape Pine - Competitive Fixed Gear < 65' 617
St. Mary's Bay Fixed Gear < 65' 260
Sub-Total 11,456
3Ps Placentia Bay Mobile Gear 135
Fortune Bay and West Mobile Gear 16
Placentia Bay Fixed Gear 905
Fortune Bay and West 265
Sub-Total 1,321
  TOTAL 19,823

Allocation Table and quota report 2+3 Capelin 2015-2017

NAFO Quota Definition Quota Catch 2015 Catch 2016 Catch 2017
(M.T.) (M.T.) (M.T.) (M.T.)
2J Labrador - Fixed Gear < 65' 120 * * *
  Sub-Total 120 * * *
3K White Bay - Mobile Gear < 65' 1200 1812 3032 *
Notre Dame Bay - Mobile Gear < 65' 1200 1297 * 1214
Cape Bauld to Fishott Island - Fixed Gear < 65' 772 * * *
Fishott Island to cape fox - Fixed Gear < 65' 260 * * *
Cape Fox to Hampton, Inclusive - Fixed Gear < 65' 1020 1470 1614 *
Bottom of White Bay to Cape St. John - Fixed Gear < 65' 1528 1581 * *
Cape St. John to North Head - Fixed Gear < 65' 1340 1767 1798 1204
North Head to Dog Bay Point - Fixed Gear < 65' 2776 3948 2446 1204
Dog Bay Point to Cape Freels - Fixed Gear < 65' 624 * * *
Sub-Total 10,720 13,644 10,744 3,761
3L Bonavista Bay - Mobile Gear < 65' 1140 1368 2195 1410
Trinity Bay - Mobile Gear < 65' 1496 2292 1211 1697
Conception Bay - Mobile Gear < 65' 2848 2504 2619 3000
St. Mary's Bay Mobile < 65' 1344 * * *
Bonavista Bay - Fixed Gear < 65' 1996 2670 3429 3489
Trinity Bay - Fixed Gear < 65' 3592 1436 3913 3589
Conception Bay - Fixed Gear < 65' 2968 916 3252 2971
Cape St. Francis to Long Point - Fixed Gear < 65' 480 * * *
Long Point to Cape Neddick - Fixed Gear < 65' 320 * * *
Cape Neddick to Cape Pine - Fixed Gear < 65' 91 * * *
Cape Neddick to Cape Pine - Competitive Fixed Gear < 65' 949 * * *
St. Mary's Bay Fixed Gear < 65' 400 * * *
Sub-Total 17,624 11,377 16,620 16,156
3Ps Placentia Bay Mobile Gear 208 * * *
Fortune Bay and West Mobile Gear 24 * * *
Placentia Bay Fixed Gear 1392 * * *
Fortune Bay and West 408 * * *
Sub-Total 2,032 * * *
  TOTAL 30,496 25,021 27,364 19,917

Appendix 5: Map of Capelin Fishing Area

Map of Capelin fishing areas around Newfoundland and Labrador

Appendix 6: Safety at sea

Vessel owners and masters have a duty to ensure the safety of their crew and vessel. Adherence to safety regulations and good practices by owners, masters and crew of fishing vessels will help save lives, protect the vessel from damage and protect the environment. All fishing vessels must be in a seaworthy condition and maintained as required by Transport Canada and other applicable agencies. Vessels subject to inspection should have a certificate of inspection valid for the area of intended operation. 

In the federal government, responsibility for regulating shipping, navigation, and vessel safety lies with Transport Canada, while emergency response is the responsibility of the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG). DFO has responsibility for the management of fisheries resources, and in Newfoundland and Labrador, the provincial Workplace Health, Safety and Compensation Commission (WHSCC) has jurisdiction over health and safety issues in the workplace.

Before leaving on a voyage the owner, master or operator must ensure that the fishing vessel is capable of safely making the passage. Critical factors for a safe voyage include:

Useful publications include Transport Canada’s Small Fishing Vessel Safety Manual which can be obtained from TC or printed from their website.

Fishing vessel safety includes three priority areas:

Fishing vessel stability

Vessel stability is paramount for safety. Care must be given to the stowage and securing of all cargo, skiffs, equipment, fuel containers and supplies, and also to correct ballasting. Fish harvesters must be familiar with their vessel’s centre of gravity, the effect of free surface liquids on stability, loose water or fish on deck, loading and unloading operations and the vessel’s freeboard. Fish harvesters should know the limitations of their vessels. If unsure, the vessel operator should contact a qualified naval architect, marine surveyor or the local Transport Canada Marine Safety office.

Fishing vessel owners are required to develop detailed instructions addressing the limits of stability for each of their vessels. The instructions must be based on a formal assessment of the vessel by a qualified naval architect and include detailed safe operation documentation. Instructions should be kept on board the vessel at all times.

Fishing vessel owners should also keep on-board detailed documentation on engine room procedures, maintenance schedules to ensure watertight integrity, and instructions for regular practice of emergency drills.

Emergency drill requirements

The vessel master must establish procedures and assign responsibilities to each crew member for emergencies such as crew member overboard, fire, flooding, abandoning ship and calling for help.

Since July 30, 2003 all crew members with more than six months at sea are required to have taken minimum Marine Emergency Duties (MED) training or be registered for such training. 

MED provides a basic understanding of:

Cold water immersion

Drowning is the number one cause of death in the fishing industry. Cold water is defined as water below 25 degrees Celsius, but the greatest effects occur below 15 degrees Celsius. Newfoundland and Labrador waters are usually below 15 degrees. 

The effects of cold water on the body occur in four stages:

Vessel masters should know what to do to prevent themselves or their crew from falling into the water and what to do if that occurs. 

Other issues

Weather

Vessel owners and masters are reminded of the importance of paying close attention to current weather trends and forecasts during the voyage. Marine weather information and forecasts can be obtained from Environment Canada’s website.

Emergency Radio Procedures

Vessel owners and masters should ensure that all crew are able to activate the Search and Rescue (SAR) system by contacting the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) early rather than later. It is strongly recommended that all fish harvesters carry a registered 406 MHz Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB). These beacons should be registered with Coast Guard’s National Search and Rescue secretariat. When activated, an EPIRB transmits a distress call that is picked up or relayed by satellites and transmitted via land earth stations to the Joint Rescue Co-ordination Centre (JRCC), which will task and co-ordinate rescue resources.

All crew members should know how to make a distress call and should obtain their restricted operator certificate from Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (formerly Industry Canada). Whenever possible, masters should contact the nearest Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) Marine Communications and Traffic Services (MCTS) station prior to a distress situation developing. Correct radio procedures are important for communications in an emergency. Incorrect or misunderstood communications may hinder a rescue response.

Since August 1, 2003 all commercial vessels greater than 20 metres in length are required to carry a Class D VHF Digital Selective Calling (DSC) radio. A registered DSC VHF radio has the capability to alert other DSC equipped vessels in the immediate area and advise Coast Guard MCTS that the vessel is in distress. Masters should be aware that they should register their DSC radios with ISED Canada to obtain a Marine Mobile Services Identity (MMSI) number; otherwise the automatic distress calling feature of the radio may not work.

A DSC radio that is connected to a GPS unit will also automatically include the vessel’s current position in the distress message. More detailed information on MCTS and DSC can be obtained by contacting a local MCTS center or from the Canadian Coast Guard.

Collison regulations

Fish harvesters should have a thorough knowledge of the Collision Regulations and the responsibilities between vessels where risk of collision exists. Navigation lights must be kept in good working order and must be displayed from sunset to sunrise and during all times of restricted visibility. To help reduce the potential for collision or close quarters situations that may also result in the loss of fishing gear, fish harvesters are encouraged to monitor the appropriate local Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) VHF channel, when travelling or fishing near shipping lanes or other areas frequented by large commercial vessels. 

Vessels required to participate in VTS include:

Exception include:

Additional information can be found on the Collision Regulations page. 

Sail plan

An important trip consideration is the use of a sail plan which includes the particulars of the vessel, crew and voyage. The sail plan should be left with a responsible person on shore or filed with the local MCTS centre. After leaving port the fish harvester should contact the holder of the sail plan daily or as per another schedule. The sail plan should ensure notification to JRCC when communication is not maintained which might indicate your vessel is in distress. Be sure to cancel the sail plan upon completion of the voyage

Appendix 7: Allocations by area, gear type and fleet for 2+3

NAFO FLEET QUOTA AREA 2017 QUOTA
2J Fixed Gear Labrador 120
TOTAL 2J 120
3K Mobile Gear White Bay 1,200
Notre Dame Bay 1,200
Fixed Gear Cape Bauld to Fishott Island 772
Fishott Island to Cape Fox 260
Cape Fox to Hampton, Inclusive 1.020
Bottom of white Bay to Cape St. John - IQ 1,528
Cape St. John to North Head - IQ 1,340
North Head to Dog Bay Point 2,776
Dog Bay Point to Cape Freels 624
TOTAL 3K 10,720
3L Mobile Gear Bonavista Bay 1,140
Trinity Bay 1,496
Conception Bay 2,848
Southern shore 0
St. Mary's Bay 1,344
Fixed Gear Bonavista Bay 1,996
Trinity Bay 3,592
Conception Bay 2,968
Cape St. Francis to Long Point - IQ 480
Long Point to Cape Neddick - IQ 320
Cape Neddick to Cape Pine - IQ 91
Cape Neddick to Cape Pine - Competitive 949
St. Mary's Bay 400
TOTAL 3L 17,624
3Ps Mobile Gear Placentia Bay 208
Fortune Bay and West 24
Fixed Gear Placentia Bay 1,392
Fortune Bay and West 408
TOTAL 3Ps 2,032
Total Capelin 30,496

Appendix 8: C&P enforcement data for 2+3 Capelin

Table 3: 2013-2017 NL region enforcement activity for 2+3 Capelin
Year NAFO Zone Fishery Officer Patrol Hours Non Patrol Enforcement Hours Program Other Total Fishery Officer Hours Vessels Checked Persons Checked Gear Checks Sites Checked
2013 2J3KLPs 357 766 41 1164 66 19 45 16
2014 2J3KLPs 415 1548.75 57.5 2021.25 131 50 36 38
2015 2J3KLPs 532.5 1617 54 2203.5 313 103 54 26
2016 2J3KLPs 782.5 2564 258 3604.5 435 170 90 50
2017 2J3KLPs 745 3394.75 119.25 4259 315 85 58 129
Five Year Average 2J3KLPs 566 1978 106 2650 252 85 57 52
NL Region Enforcement Hours for 2+3 Capelin
Description

Appendix 8: A bar graph of the Newfoundland and Labrador Region Enforcement Hours for 2+3 capelin from 2013 to 2017 displaying the fishery patrol officer hours (red), non patrol enforcement hours (green) and program other hours (purple). In 2013, the Fishery Officer patrol hours for 2+3 capelin were 357 hours, and the Non Patrol enforcement hours for 2+3 capelin were 766 hours, and Program other hours were 41. In 2014, the Fishery Officer patrol hours for 2+3 capelin were 415 hours, and the Non Patrol enforcement hours for 2+3 capelin were 1548.75 hours, and Program other hours were 57.5. In 2015, the Fishery Officer patrol hours for 2+3 capelin were 532.5 hours, and the Non Patrol enforcement hours for 2+3 capelin were 1617 hours, and Program other hours were 54. In 2016, the Fishery Officer patrol hours for 2+3 capelin were 782.5 hours, and the Non Patrol enforcement hours for 2+3 capelin were 2564 hours, and Program other hours were 258. In 2017, the Fishery Officer patrol hours for 2+3 capelin were 745 hours, and the Non Patrol enforcement hours for 2+3 capelin were 3394.75 hours, and Program other hours were 119.25.

Appendix 9: Departmental contacts

Contact Telephone Fax Email
DFO-NL Regional Headquarters
P.O. Box 5667, St. John’s, NL A1C 5X1
Erin Dunne
Resource Manager, Pelagics
(709) 772-4680 (709) 772-3628 erin.dunne@dfo-mpo.gc.ca
Daryl Walsh
Chief
Conservation & Protection
(709) 772-6423 (709) 772-4327 daryl.walsh@dfo-mpo.gc.ca
Frank Corbett
Policy Analyst
(709) 772-6935 (709) 772-4583 frank.corbett@dfo-mpo.gc.ca
Christina Bourne
Biologist
(709) 772-6578 (709) 772-4188 christina.bourne@dfo-mpo.gc.ca
DFO-NL Area Offices Resource Management
David Small
Area Chief (3KL)
Grand Falls-Windsor
(709) 292-5167 (709) 292-5205 david.small@dfo-mpo.gc.ca
Wayne King
Area Chief (2J)
Happy Valley–Goose Bay
(709) 896-6157 (709) 896-8419 wayne.king@dfo-mpo.gc.ca
Laurie Hawkins
Area Chief (3P, 4R)
Corner Brook
(709) 637-4310 (709) 637-4445 laurie.hawkins@dfo-mpo.gc.ca
DFO-NL Area Offices – Conservation & Protection
Chad Ward
Area Chief (3KLPs)
St. John’s
(709) 772-5857 (709) 772-2659 chad.ward@dfo-mpo.gc.ca
Brent Watkins
Area Chief
(2GHJ, 3K, 4R3Pn)
Corner Brook
(709) 637-4334 (709) 637-4213 brent.watkins@dfo-mpo.gc.ca

Appendix 10: References

Buren AD, Koen-Alonso M, Pepin P, Mowbray F, Nakashima BS, Stenson GB, Ollerhead N, Montevecchi WA (2014a) Bottom-up regulation of capelin, a keystone forage species. PLoS ONE 9:e87589.

Carscadden JE, Frank KT, Leggett WC (2001) Ecosystem changes and the effects on capelin (Mallotus villosus), a major forage species. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58:73-85.

Carscadden JE, Gjøsæter H, Vilhjálmsson H (2013) A comparison of recent changes in distribution of capelin (Mallotus villosus) in the Barents Sea, around Iceland and in the Northwest Atlantic. Progress in Oceanography

Carscadden JE, Nakashima BS (1997) Abundance and changes in distribution, biology and behavior of capelin in response to cooler water of the 1990s. Forage fishes in marine ecosystems Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Role of Forage Fishes in Marine Ecosystems Alaska Sea Grant College Program Rep No AK-SG-97-01. University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska

Carscadden, J. E., Nakashima, B. S., Frank, K. T., 1997. Effects of fish length and temperature on the timing of peak spawning in capelin (Mallotus villosus). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54, 781-787.

Colbourne E, Holden J, Senciall D, Bailey W, Snook S, Higdon J (2016) Physical oceanographic conditions on the Newfoundland and Labrador Shelf during 2015. Canadian Atlantic Fisheries Scientific Advisory Committee Research Document 2016/079

Leggett WC, Frank KT, Carscadden JE (1984) Meteorological and hydrographic regulation of year-class strength in capelin (Mallotus villosus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 41:1193-1201.

Mowbray F (2002) Changes in the vertical distribution of capelin (Mallotus villosus) off Newfoundland. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59:942-949.

Murphy HM, Pepin P, Robert D (2018) Re-visiting the drivers of capelin recruitment in Newfoundland since 1991. Fisheries Research 200:1-10.

Nakashima BS, Wheeler JP (2002) Capelin (Mallotus villosus) spawning behaviour in Newfoundland waters - the interaction between beach and demersal spawning. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59:909-916.