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Fishing in pursuit of a moderate livelihood

Thirty-four First Nations in the Maritimes and Gaspé region, and the Peskotomuhkati, have a treaty right to fish in pursuit of a moderate livelihood: the Government of Canada recognizes this right and continues to work with First Nations to implement the Marshall decisions.

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General information

Peace and Friendship Treaties in the Maritimes and Gaspé

Historical treaties signed with Mi'kmaq and Maliseet First Nations and the Peskotomuhkati prior to 1779.

The Marshall decisions

An overview of the Marshall decision and Marshall II, including the implicated 34 First Nations, and the Peskotomuhkati.

Our response to the Marshall decisions

Our actions to-date in response to the Marshall decisions.

2021 moderate livelihood fishing

Our new approach for the 2021 commercial fishing season to support First Nations.

Fisheries science and advice

The fisheries science and science advice that informs our fisheries management decisions.

Final report by the Federal Special Representative

Recommendations to improve understanding, trust and relationships among Indigenous and non-Indigenous fish harvesters.

What we are doing across Canada

Our reconciliation strategy

Our plan to build a renewed relationship with Indigenous peoples across all areas of the department—fisheries, oceans, aquatic habitat and marine waterways.

Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy

Strategy objectives and outcomes for fisheries where land claims settlements have not already put a fisheries management regime in place.

Food, social and ceremonial fisheries

Overview of how fishing for food, social and ceremonial purposes is protected under the Constitution.

Pacific fisheries agreements

Treaties in British Columbia and Yukon that contain Aboriginal fisheries agreements.

Atlantic Integrated Commercial Fisheries Initiative

Funding and support to Mi`kmaq, Maliseet and Passamaquoddy Indigenous communities in the Atlantic.

Pacific Integrated Commercial Fisheries Initiative

Funding for building capacity of commercial fisheries and co-management for West Coast First Nations.

Northern Integrated Commercial Fisheries Initiative

Funding for development of Northern Indigenous-owned communal commercial fishing enterprises and aquaculture operations.

Indigenous Program Review and renewal

Findings and recommendations shaped by Indigenous peoples who have participated in the our programs.

Treaties, agreements and negotiations in Canada

Treaties and agreements

Learn about historic and modern treaties in Canada, treaty rights and the treaty relationship.

Ongoing negotiations

Find out about land claims negotiations and other talks with partners to advance reconciliation across Canada.

Recognition of rights discussion tables

Over 80 discussion tables across the country exploring new ways of working together to advance the recognition of Indigenous rights and self-determination


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