References

The following main references were used in the creation of this website. For more detailed information on topics ranging from egg case predation to dental sexual dimorphism in skates and rays, refer to these books and journal articles directly.

Biology of Sharks and their Relatives (2004) Edited by Carrier JC, Musick JA, Heithaus MR. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida

Boschung HT, Williams JD, Gotshall DW, Caldwell DK, Caldwell MC (1998) National Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Fishes, Whales and Dolphins. Chanticleer Press Inc., New York

Bor PHF, Santos MB (2003) Findings of elasmobranch eggs in the stomachs of sperm whales and other marine organisms. J Mar Biol Ass UK 83: 1351-1353

Bratton BO, Ayes JL (1987) Observations on the electric organ discharge of two skate species (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae) and its relationship to behaviour. Environmental Biology of Fishes 20(4): 241-254

Castro JI (1983) The Sharks of North American Waters. Texas A&M University Press

Compagno LJV (1990) Alternative life-history styles of cartilaginous fishes in time and space. Environmental Biology of Fishes 28: 33-75

Cox DL, Koob TJ (1993) Predation on elasmobranch eggs. Environmental Biology of Fishes 38: 117-125

Frisk MG, Miller TJ (2006) Age, growth, and latitudinal patterns of two Rajidae species in the northwestern Atlantic: little skate (Leucoraja erinacea) and winter skate (Leucoraja ocellata). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 63: 1078-1091

Gedamke T, DuPaul WD, Musick JA (2005) Observations on the life history of the barndoor skate, Dipturus laevis, on Georges Bank (Western North Atlantic). e-Journal Northw Atl Fish Sci 35(art 19)

Hamlett WC (1999) Sharks, Skates, and Rays. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland

Kajiura SM, Tricas TC (1996) Seasonal dynamics of dental sexual dimorphism in the Atlantic stingray Dasyatis sabina. The Journal of Experimental Biology 199: 2297-2306

Kajiura SM, Sebastian AP, Tricas TC (2000) Dermal bite wounds as indicators of reproductive seasonality and behaviour in the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina. Environmental Biology of Fishes 58: 23-31

Koester DM (2003) Anatomy and motor pathways of the electric organ of skates. The Anatomical Record Part A 273A: 648-662

Koester DM, Spirito CP (2003) Punting: an unusual mode of locomotion in the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 3: 553-561

Kulka DW, Swain D, Simpson MR, Miri CM, Simon J, Gauthier J, McPhie R, Sulikowski J, Hamilton L (2006) Distribution, Abundance, and Life History of Malacoraja senta (Smooth Skate) in Canadian Atlantic Waters With Reference to its Global Distribution. Can Sci Res Doc 2006/093

Lucifora LO, Vassallo AI (2002) Walking in skates (Chondrichthyes, Rajidae): anatomy, behaviour and analogies to tetrapod locomotion. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 77: 35-41

Luer CA, Gilbert PW (1985) Mating behavior, egg deposition, incubation period, and hatching in the clearnose skate, Raja eglanteria. Environmental Biology of Fishes 13(3): 161-171

Martin RA, Rekdal E (2006) "Hedgehog": a novel posture in juvenile Amblyraja radiata. Journal of Fish Biology 68: 613-617

McPhie RP, Campana SE (2007) Bomb dating and age determination of northwest Atlantic skate (family Rajidae) on the eastern Scotian Shelf. Submitted for publication

Moyle PB, Cech JJ (2004) Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

Natanson LJ, Sulikowski JA, Kneebone J, Tsang PCW (2006) Age and growth of the smooth skate, Malacoraja senta, from the western Gulf of Maine. Abstract, American Elasmobranch Society 2006 Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA

Nelson GA, Ross MR (1995) Gastric evacuation in little skate. Journal of Fish Biology 46: 977-986

Ostrander GK, Cheng KC, Wolf JC, Wolfe MJ (2004) Shark cartilage, cancer, and the growing threat of pseudoscience. Cancer Research 64: 8485-8491

Rick TC, Erlandson JM (2002) Evaluating the economic significance of sharks, skates, and rays (Elasmobranchs) in prehistoric economies. Journal of Archaeological Science 29: 111-122

Scott WB, Scott MG (1988) Atlantic Fishes of Canada. Can Bull Fish Aquat Sci 219: 731p

Sulikowski JA, Morin MD, Suk SH, Huntting Howell W (2003) Age and growth estimates of the winter skate (Leucoraja ocellata) in the western Gulf of Maine. Fish Bull 101: 405-413

Sulikowski JA, Tsang PCW, Huntting Howell W (2004) An annual cycle of steroid hormone concentrations and ginad development in the winter skate, Leucoraja ocellata, from the western Gulf of Maine. Mar Bio 144: 845-853

Sulikowski jA, Tsang PCW, Huntting Howell W (2005) Age and size at sexual maturity for the winter skate (Leucoraja ocellata), in the western Gulf of Maine based on morphological, histological and steroid hormone analyses. Environmental Biology of Fishes 72: 429-441

Sulikowski JA, Kneebone J, Elzey S, Jurek J, Danley PD, Huntting Howell W, Tsang PCW (2005) Age and growth estimates of the thorny skate (Amblyraja radiata) in the western Gulf of Maine. Fish Bull 103: 161-168

Sulikowski JA, Kneebone J, Elzey S, Danley PD, Huntting Howell W, Tsang PCW (2005) The reproductive cycle of the thorny skate (Amblyraja radiata) in the western Gulf of Maine. Fish Bull 103: 536-543

Sulikowski JA, Kneebone J, Elzey S, Jurek J, Howell WH, Tsang PCW (2006) Using the composite variables of reproductive morphology, histology and steroid hormones to determine age and size at sexual maturity for the thorny skate Amblyraja radiata in the western Gulf of Maine. J Fish Biol 69: 1449-1465

Sulikowski JA, Elzey S, Kneebone J, Jurek J, Huntting Howell W, Tsang PCW (2007) The reproductive cycle of the smooth skate, Malacoraja senta, in the Gulf of Maine. Mar Freshw Res 58: 98-103

Templeman W (1982) Development, occurrence and characteristics of egg capsules of the thorny skate, Raja radiata, in the Northwest Atlantic. J Northw Atl Fish Sci 3: 47-56

Templeman W (1984) Migrations of thorny skate, Raja radiata, tagged in the NewFoundland area. J Northw Atl Fish Sci 5: 55-63

Templeman W (1987) Differences in sexual maturity and related characteristics between population of thorny skate (Raja radiata) in the Northwest Atlantic. J Northw Atl Fish Sci 7: 155-167

Waring GT (1984) Age, growth, and mortality of the little skate off the Northeast Coast of the United States. Trans Am Fish Soc 113: 314-321