Carmine Shiner

Notropis percobromus

SARA Status
No Status
NS
Special Concern
SC
Threatened
TH
Endangered
EN
Extirpated
EX

SARA Status

  • No Status NS
  • Special Concern SC
  • Threatened TH
  • Endangered EN
  • Extirpated EX
COSEWIC Status
Not at Risk
NR
Special Concern
SC
Threatened
TH
Endangered
EN
Extirpated
EX

COSEWIC Status

  • Not at Risk NR
  • Special Concern SC
  • Threatened TH
  • Endangered EN
  • Extirpated EX

This species has been identified as Threatened by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). It is listed under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA) and was afforded protection under the SARA as of June 2004. Additional protection is afforded through the federal Fisheries Act. Under the SARA, a recovery strategy must be developed for this species.

General Description

In Manitoba, the Carmine Shiner (Notropis percobromus) was once known as the Rosyface Shiner (N. rubellus). It is now recognized as a different species within the rosyface shiner species complex, largely based on zoogeographic information. The Carmine Shiner is a member of the Minnow family, Cyprinidae. It has the following characteristics and distinguishing features:

  • A slender, elongate minnow, typically 55 to 60 mm in length (Whitemouth River);
  • Snout length is equal to the eye diameter;
  • Adults are olive green dorsally, silvery on the sides and silvery white on the belly;
  • Black pigment outlines the scale pockets dorsally; the opercula and cheeks may be pinkish;
  • Breeding males develop fine, sandpaper-like nuptial tubercles on the head, pectoral fins and some predorsal scales. They also turn pinkish violet around the head with a reddish tinge at the base of the dorsal fin. Breeding females are usually lighter in colour; and
  • Seldom survives capture or handling and scales are easily dislodged.

Distribution

In Canada, this species has been found only in the Winnipeg River system, including the Whitemouth watershed. The Manitoba populations are at the northwestern limit of the distribution, separated from the continuous range of the species by 450 km.

Habitat and Life History

Carmine Shiners typically summer at midwater depths of clear, fast flowing streams and small rivers over clean gravel or rubble substrates. They often school in riffles and pools near the confluence with larger streams and rivers. Habitat use during other seasons and by young-of-the-year has not been studied in Manitoba, nor has spawning. However, a ripe and running female was taken in the Pinawa Channel in 19.3ºC water. Southern populations typically spawn in riffles in May/June at temperatures of 20º to 28.9ºC. Adhesive eggs are deposited into depressions in gravel, often in the nests of other minnow species. Eggs hatch within 60 hours at 21ºC and newly hatched larvae work their way vertically into the gravel. These fish are mature at one year and live about three years. Individuals likely move into deeper water to winter.

Diet

This fish eats primarily aquatic insects, some terrestrial insects, fish eggs, algae and diatoms. Prey are located by sight.

Threats

This species may be threatened by activities that alter turbidity, flow and/or substrate such as channelization, impoundment, drainage that increases sediment loading, streambed gravel removal and shoreline development. It has a narrow range of habitat requirements and may respond quickly to changes in habitat and water quality. During the past century, impoundments that have increased turbidity and decreased riffle habitat may have caused a decline in the abundance of this fish in the Winnipeg River system. Species introductions and bait harvesting may also pose a threat.

Similar Species

The Carmine Shiner resembles its close relative the Emerald Shiner (N. atherinoides), which has a deeper, more compressed body shape and blunter snout.

Text Sources: Evermann and Goldsborough 1907; COSEWIC Status Report 1994; Woods et al. 2002; Stewart and Watkinson 2004.

For more information, visit the Species at Risk (SARA) Public Registry Profile.

Carmine Shiner

Carmine Shriner

Photo Credit: D. Watkinson, DFO

Scientific name: Notropis percobromus
SARA Status: Threatened (June 2003)
COSEWIC Status: Threatened (November 2001 & April 2006)
Region: Manitoba

Distribution of the Carmine Shiner as described in the following paragraph

Distribution of Carmine Shiner.

Did you know?

In Canada, this species has been found only in the Winnipeg River system, including the Whitemouth watershed. The Manitoba populations are at the northwestern limit of the distribution, separated from the continuous range of the species by 450 km.

Carmine Shiner

Notropis percobromus - Photo credit: K. Schmidt

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