Black Gill Syndrome of Shrimp and Prawns

Category

Category 4 (Negligible Regulatory Significance in Canada)

Common, generally accepted names of the organism or disease agent

Black gill disease, Burned gills, Black spot disease, Branchiostegite melanization.

Scientific name or taxonomic affiliation

Manifestation of a number of disease syndromes including ascorbic acid deficiency.

Geographic distribution

Ubiquitous.

Host species

All penaeids, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Pandalus borealis and Pandalus platyceros especially under captive/culture conditions.

Impact on the host

Destruction and dysfunction of gill processes, secondary infections.

Diagnostic techniques

Gross Observations: Multifocal black or brown spots in, or general discolouration of, the gills, due to melanization at sites of tissue necrosis. Gill melanization may be visible through side of carapace.

Wet Mounts: Will identify condition as above.

Histology: Massive haemocyte accumulation (called inflammation by some authors), tissue necrosis and melanin deposition in affected areas of gills. Secondary infections of bacteria, fungi and protozoa may occur.

Methods of control

May be due to a variety of biotic and abiotic agents; prevention or control may be feasible if cause can be identified.

References

Brock J.A. 1983. Diseases (infectious and non­infectious), metazoan parasites, predators, and public health considerations in Macrobrachium culture and fisheries. In: J.P. McVey (ed.). Handbook of Mariculture, Vol. I. Crustacean Aquaculture. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, FL, p. 329-370.

Brock, J.A. 1988. Branchiostegite melanization of M. rosenbergii. In: C.J. Sindermann and D.V. Lightner (eds.). Disease Diagnosis and Control in North American Aquaculture. Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science 17. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 154-155.

Couch J.A. 1978. Diseases, parasites and toxic responses of commercial penaeid shrimps of the Gulf of Mexico and south Atlantic coasts of North America. Fishery Bulletin 76: 1­44.

Johnson, S.K. 1978. Some disease problems in crawfish and freshwater shrimp culture. FDDL­S11. Texas A & M University, College Station, TX.

Lightner, D,V. 1988. Black gill syndrome of penaeid shrimp. In: C.J. Sindermann and D.V. Lightner (eds.). Disease Diagnosis and Control in North American Aquaculture. Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science 17. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 86-88.

Lightner, D.V., C.T. Fontaine and K. Hanks. 1975. Some forms of gill disease in penaeid shrimp. Proceedings of the World Mariculture Society 6: 347­365.

Rinaldo, R.G. and P. Yevich. 1974. Black spot gill disease syndrome of northern shrimp Pandalus borealis. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 24: 224­223.

Citation Information

Bower, S.M., McGladdery, S.E., Price, I.M. (1994): Synopsis of Infectious Diseases and Parasites of Commercially Exploited Shellfish: Phototrophic Endolith Invasion of Mussel Shells

Date last revised: Fall 1994
Comments to Susan Bower

Date modified: