Canada’s marine protected and conserved areas

Canada has surpassed its international target of 10 percent protection of marine and coastal areas. With all marine protected areas and marine refuges considered to date, Canada has conserved approximately 793,906 km2 or 13.81 percent of Canada’s marine and coastal areas.

Protected areas include Marine Protected Areas created under the Oceans Act, National Marine Conservation Areas, and marine portions of National Wildlife Areas, Migratory Bird Sanctuaries, National Parks, and provincial protected areas. Protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures (OEABCM) both contribute to marine conservation targets. To date, all areas that qualify as OEABCM have been fisheries area closures. Fisheries area closures that meet OEABCM criteria are known as “marine refuges.”

Contributing sites can be viewed on the interactive map.

Conserved areas contributing to marine conservation targets

Percent Coverage as of August 1, 2019

Body of water Bioregion Name Type of site Government department / agency Approximate size (km2) contribution to marine conservation targets Approximate % coverage contribution to marine conservation targets
Arctic Ocean Arctic Basin Tuvaijuittuq Oceans Act MPA Fisheries and Oceans Canada 319,411 5.55
Arctic Ocean Eastern Arctic Davis Strait Conservation Area Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 17,298 0.30
Arctic Ocean Eastern Arctic Disko Fan Conservation Area (portion closed to all bottom-contact fishing) Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 7,485 0.13
Arctic Ocean/Atlantic Ocean Eastern Arctic and Newfoundland-Labrador Shelves Hatton Basin Conservation Area Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 42,459 0.74
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Banc-des-Américains Oceans Act MPA Fisheries and Oceans Canada 1,000 0.02
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Basin Head Oceans Act MPA Fisheries and Oceans Canada 9 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Bay of Islands Salmon Migration closure Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 218 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Beaugé Bank Sponge Conservation Area Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 215 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Central Gulf of St. Lawrence Sponge Conservation Area Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 1,284 0.02
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence East of Anticosti Sponge Conservation Area Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 939 0.02
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Eastern Gulf of St. Lawrence Coral Conservation Area Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 423 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Eastern Honguedo Strait Coral and Sponge Conservation Area Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2,338 0.04
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Jacques-Cartier Strait Sponge Conservation Area Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 346 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Les Demoiselles nursery (Plaisance Bay), Magdalen Islands closure Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 0.3 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Magdalen Island Lagoons (6 overlapping fisheries area closures) Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 136 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Miramichi Bay closure Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 1,553 0.03
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence North of Bennett Bank Coral Conservation Area Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 821 0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Parent Bank Sponge Conservation Area Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 530 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Saguenay Fjord Upstream closure Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 109 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Scallop Buffer Zones (3 fisheries area closures) Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 5,835 0.10
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Slope of Magdalen Shallows Coral Conservation Area Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 335 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence South-East of Anticosti Island Sponge Conservation Area Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 845 0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Western Honguedo Strait Coral Conservation Area Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 496 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence; Newfoundland-Labrador Shelves Lobster Area closures (Trout River, Shoal Point, Penguin Islands, Gooseberry Island, Glovers Harbour, Mouse Island and Gander Bay) Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 94 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Newfoundland-Labrador Shelves Division 3O Coral closure Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 10,422 0.18
Atlantic Ocean Newfoundland-Labrador Shelves Eastport Oceans Act MPA Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Newfoundland-Labrador Shelves Funk Island Deep closure Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 7,274 0.13
Atlantic Ocean Newfoundland-Labrador Shelves Gilbert Bay Oceans Act MPA Fisheries and Oceans Canada 62 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Newfoundland-Labrador Shelves Hawke Channel closure Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 8,837 0.15
Atlantic Ocean Newfoundland-Labrador Shelves Hopedale Saddle closure Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 15,411 0.27
Atlantic Ocean Newfoundland-Labrador Shelves Laurentian Channel Oceans Act MPA Fisheries and Oceans Canada 11,580 0.20
Atlantic Ocean Newfoundland-Labrador Shelves Northeast Newfoundland Slope closure Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 55,353 0.96
Pacific Ocean Northern Shelf Hecate Strait and Queen Charlotte Sound Glass Sponge Reefs Oceans Act MPA Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2,410 0.04
Pacific Ocean Offshore Pacific Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents Oceans Act MPA Fisheries and Oceans Canada 97 <0.01
Pacific Ocean Offshore Pacific Offshore Pacific Seamounts and Vents closure Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 82,530 1.44
Pacific Ocean Offshore Pacific SGaan Kinghlas-Bowie Seamount Oceans Act MPA Fisheries and Oceans Canada 6,103 0.11
Atlantic Ocean Scotian Shelf Corsair and Georges Canyons Conservation Area (restricted bottom fisheries zone) Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 8,797 0.15
Atlantic Ocean Scotian Shelf Emerald Basin and Sambro Banks Sponge Conservation Areas (2 fisheries area closures) Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 260 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Scotian Shelf The Gully Oceans Act MPA Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2,363 0.04
Atlantic Ocean Scotian Shelf Jordan Basin Conservation Area Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 49 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Scotian Shelf Lophelia Coral Conservation Area Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 15 <0.01
Bay of Fundy Scotian Shelf Musquash Estuary Oceans Act MPA Fisheries and Oceans Canada 7 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Scotian Shelf Northeast Channel Coral Conservation Area (restricted bottom fisheries zone) Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 391 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Scotian Shelf St. Anns Bank Oceans Act MPA Fisheries and Oceans Canada 4,364 0.08
Atlantic Ocean Scotian Shelf Western/Emerald Banks Conservation Area (restricted fisheries zone) Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 10,234 0.18
Pacific Ocean Strait of Georgia Strait of Georgia and Howe Sound Glass Sponge Reefs (17 fisheries area closures) Marine Refuge Fisheries and Oceans Canada 32.6 <0.01
Beaufort Sea Western Arctic Anguniaqvia niqiqyuam Oceans Act MPA Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2,358 0.04
Beaufort Sea Western Arctic Tarium Niryutait Oceans Act MPA Fisheries and Oceans Canada 1,750 0.03
Arctic Ocean Arctic Archipelago Qausuittuq National Park National ParkFootnote 1 Parks Canada Agency 1,179 0.02
Arctic Ocean Arctic Archipelago Quttinirpaaq National Park National ParkFootnote 1 Parks Canada Agency 2,342 0.04
Arctic Ocean Eastern Arctic Auyuittuq National Park National ParkFootnote 1 Parks Canada Agency 1,157 0.02
Arctic Ocean (Lancaster Sound) Eastern Arctic Tallurutiup Imanga National Marine Conservation Area National Marine Conservation Area Parks Canada Agency 108,000 1.9
Arctic Ocean (Lancaster Sound) Eastern Arctic Sirmilik National Park National ParkFootnote 1 Parks Canada Agency 222 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Forillon National Park National ParkFootnote 1 Parks Canada Agency 5 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Kouchibouguac National Park National ParkFootnote 1 Parks Canada Agency 41 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Saguenay–St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area Parks Canada Agency 1,246 0.02
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay Complex Ukkusiksalik National Park National ParkFootnote 1 Parks Canada Agency 3,074 0.05
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay Complex Wapusk National Park National ParkFootnote 1 Parks Canada Agency 803 0.01
Pacific Ocean Northern Shelf Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve, National Marine Conservation Area Reserve, and Haida Heritage Site National Marine Conservation Area Parks Canada Agency 3,500 0.06
Atlantic Ocean Scotian Shelf Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site National ParkFootnote 1 Parks Canada Agency 3 <0.01
Pacific Ocean Southern Shelf Pacific Rim National Park Reserve National ParkFootnote 1 Parks Canada Agency 225 <0.01
Pacific Ocean Strait of Georgia Gulf Islands National Park Reserve National ParkFootnote 1 Parks Canada Agency 6 <0.01
Arctic Ocean (Parry Channel) Western Arctic Aulavik National Park National ParkFootnote 1 Parks Canada Agency 97 <0.01
Beaufort Sea Western Arctic Ivvavik National Park National ParkFootnote 1 Parks Canada Agency 78 <0.01
Beaufort Sea Western Arctic Pingo Canadian Landmark National Historic SiteFootnote 1 Parks Canada Agency 5 <0.01
Arctic Ocean Western Arctic Queen Maud Gulf (Ahiak) Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 6,553 0.11
Arctic Ocean Eastern Arctic Ninginganiq National Wildlife Area National Wildlife AreaFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 2,834 0.05
Arctic Ocean Eastern Arctic Bylot Island Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 1,765 0.03
Arctic Ocean Eastern Arctic Nirjutikarvik National Wildlife Area National Wildlife AreaFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 1,442 0.03
Arctic Ocean Eastern Arctic Akpait National Wildlife Area National Wildlife AreaFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 743 0.01
Arctic Ocean Eastern Arctic Qaqulluit National Wildlife Area National Wildlife AreaFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 396 0.01
Arctic Ocean Eastern Arctic Prince Leopold Island Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 240 <0.01
Arctic Ocean Western Arctic Polar Bear Pass National Wildlife Area National Wildlife AreaFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 215 <0.01
Arctic Ocean Arctic Archipelago Seymour Island (Nauyavaat) Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 51 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Newfoundland-Labrador Shelves Terra Nova Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 12 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Scotian Shelf Machias Seal Island Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 10 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Scotian Shelf John Lusby Marsh National Wildlife Area National Wildlife AreaFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 5 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Scotian Shelf Port Joli Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 3 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Scotian Shelf Port Hebert Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 3 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Scotian Shelf Sable River Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 3 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Scotian Shelf Grand Manan Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 1 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Newfoundland-Labrador Shelves Île Aux Canes Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 1 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Scotian Shelf Sand Pond National Wildlife Area National Wildlife AreaFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 0.4 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Newfoundland-Labrador Shelves Shepherd Island Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 0.2 <0.01
Atlantic Ocean Scotian Shelf Boot Island National Wildlife Area National Wildlife AreaFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 0.1 <0.01
Beaufort Sea Western Arctic Banks Island Migratory Bird Sanctuary No. 1 Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 825 0.01
Beaufort Sea Western Arctic Anderson River Delta Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 161 <0.01
Beaufort Sea Western Arctic Kendall Island Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 133 <0.01
Beaufort Sea Western Arctic Banks Island Migratory Bird Sanctuary No. 2 Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 33 <0.01
Beaufort Sea Western Arctic Cape Parry Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 1 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Watshishou Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 108 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Saint-Augustin Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 54 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Sainte-Marie Islands Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 40 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Île à la Brume Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 38 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Baie Des Loups Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 37 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Gros-Mécatina Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 22 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Bonaventure Island And Percé Rock Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 9 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Rochers aux Oiseaux Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 6 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Baie De Brador Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 5 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Betchouane Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 5 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Cape Jourimain National Wildlife Area National Wildlife AreaFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 4 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Big Glace Bay Lake Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 3 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Île du Corossol Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 3 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Wallace Bay National Wildlife Area National Wildlife AreaFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 3 <0.01
Gulf of St. Lawrence Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Saint-Omer Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 1 <0.01
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay Complex Dewey Soper (Isulijarnik) Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 1,592 0.03
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay Complex Akimiski Island Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 1,472 0.03
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay Complex East Bay (Qaqsauqtuuq) Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 287 <0.01
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay Complex Harry Gibbons (Ikkattuaq) Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 191 <0.01
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay Complex McConnell River (Kuugaarjuk) Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 132 <0.01
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay Complex Boatswain Bay Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 69 <0.01
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay Complex Hannah Bay Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 61 <0.01
Hudson Bay Hudson Bay Complex Moose River Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 21 <0.01
Pacific Ocean Northern Shelf Scott Islands marine National Wildlife Area National Wildlife AreaFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 11,571 0.20
Pacific Ocean Southern Shelf Victoria Harbour Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 19 <0.01
Pacific Ocean Strait of Georgia George C. Reifel Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 2 <0.01
Pacific Ocean Southern Shelf Esquimalt Lagoon Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 1 <0.01
Pacific Ocean Strait of Georgia Shoal Harbour Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 1 <0.01
Pacific Ocean Strait of Georgia Alaksen National Wildlife Area National Wildlife AreaFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 0.1 <0.01
St. Lawrence Estuary Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Île aux Basques Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 6 <0.01
St. Lawrence Estuary Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Saint-Vallier Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 4 <0.01
St. Lawrence Estuary Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence L'Isle-Verte Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 3 <0.01
St. Lawrence Estuary Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Trois-Saumons Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 2 <0.01
St. Lawrence Estuary Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Cap-Saint-Ignace Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 1 <0.01
St. Lawrence Estuary Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence L’Islet Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 1 <0.01
St. Lawrence Estuary Estuary & Gulf of St. Lawrence Montmagny Migratory Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird SanctuaryFootnote 1 Environment and Climate Change Canada 1 <0.01
Totals Approximate size (km2) contribution to marine conservation targets Approximate % coverage contribution to marine conservation targets
Total Fisheries and Oceans Canada sites 634,866 11.04
Total Parks Canada Agency sites 122,560 2.13
Total Environment and Climate Change Canada sites 31,187 0.54
Total provincial areas 10,277 0.18
TOTALFootnote 2 793,906 13.81
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