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Socio-economic Profile of Canada's Fishing Industry Labour Force 1994–2006
Portrait of the total employment income of workers in the fishing industry
This section reviews the total employment income of workers in the fishing industry. This income represents the sum of earnings from all jobs held by workers in one of the fishing based sectors.
2.1 Net income of self-employed fish harvesters according to gender
Before examining the overall employment income picture, this section of the report analyzes the net income from fishing reported by both male and female self-employed fish harvesters in 2006. This income includes only the earnings from harvesting minus the expenses incurred to obtain the earnings. Therefore, it provides a partial portrait of the total employment income in the fishing industry.
Across Canada, net fishing income for male self-employed fish harvesters is higher than for their female counterparts. In 2006, females reported an average net income of $10,472, corresponding to 89% of the net earnings of male harvesters (Table 2.1). The gap in earnings between women and men, shown in Figure 2.1, varies considerably from one region to the next. It is surprising that in New Brunswick, women reported an average net income equal to only 42% of net earnings of men. In contrast, female harvesters in Quebec and British Columbia earned more in net fishing income than men, namely 119% and 122% of the net income observed among men. To get a more complete picture of the income disparity between the genders, a comparison of the total incomes for men and women is presented in Section 3.1.
Figure 2.1 Average Net Income of Self-employed Fish Harvesters Based on Gender and Region, 2006
Source: Canada Revenue Agency (CRA), Income statistics, Final statistics – Sampling data, 2008 issue (2006 tax year), basic table 4 – All declarations are based on age and gender.
|Men $||Women $||Women - Men Income Ratio %|
|Newfoundland & Labrador||9,950||6,789||68|
Source: Canada Revenue Agency (CRA), Income statistics, Final statistics - Sampling data, 2008 issue (2006 tax year), basic table 4 - All declarations are based on age and gender.
2.2 Total employment income based on age and work sector
In all categories of work throughout the fishing industry, workers under 20 years of age have the lowest incomes. In this age group in 2006, self-employed fish harvesters reported the highest average total employment income, $10,412. They were followed by aquaculture workers ($8,487), wage-earning fish harvesters ($7,697) and fish processing workers ($5,376). The average employment earnings for the fishing industry as a whole stood at $6,538, which is a few hundred dollars less than the average total employment income of all Canadians in this age group (Table 2.2 ).
In general, average total employment income increases with age, except for individuals 60 years or older. In 2006, with the exception of the fish processing sector, the highest earning age group were those between 40 to 59 years of age. This group was followed by workers aged 20 to 39 years. These observations are identical to those in other Canadian industries. In addition, the employment incomes of fishing based workers 20 years and older are significantly lower than the average earnings of Canadians. In 2006, among those aged 40 to 59, Canadian workers posted an average employment income of $44,791, corresponding to more than double the earnings of workers in the fishing industry ($19,932). For those 20 to 39 years and 60 years and older, the earnings gap compared to the average Canadian worker is not as great but is still significant at about 70%. For all age groups, Canadians earned on average $35,493, which is 95% more than the earnings of workers in the fishing industry ($18,207).
|Age||Average Total Employment Income ($)|
|Self-employed Fish Harvesters||Wage-earning Fish Harvesters||Fish Processing Workers||Aquaculture Workers||Fishing Industry as a Whole||Canadian Industries as a Whole|
|Less than 20 years old||10,412||7,697||5,376||8,487||6,538||6,659|
|20 to 39 years old||17,109||22,565||14,349||24,966||17,862||30,390|
|40 to 59 years old||17,268||26,205||17,776||31,736||19,932||44,791|
|60 years old and more||12,636||23,385||22,488||27,692||18,025||30,651|
Statistics for Canadian industries as a whole are calculated using CRA data, income statistics, provisional statistics – Universal data, 2008 issue (2006 tax year), table 4 – All declarations are based on age and gender.
Moreover, in 2006, aquaculture workers reported the highest average total employment income in the fishing industry ($26,181), while wage-earning fish harvesters came in second ($23,534), followed by self-employed fish harvesters ($16,348) and fish processing employees ($15,803). Table 2.2 details the average total employment income by age group and category of workers.
2.3 Total employment income based on work sector and region
A portrait of total employment income, shown in Figure 2.2 for the entire fishing industry is not reflected uniformly in all regions. Employment income varies by province. In all work sectors except self-employ fish harvesting, Ontario based workers reported the highest average total employment incomes in the country in 2006, at $33,725. After Ontario, the next highest employment earnings come from Nova Scotia at $24,852, Alberta at $23,818, and British Columbia at $22,319. As for total employment incomes for people living in the Northern Territories, it came out to $19,450, slightly above the national average (Table 2.3). However, given the small number of workers in this region, about 300 in 2006, this average is sensitive to changes in income from even a small number of workers.
Figure 2.2 Average Total Employment Income Based on Sector and Region, 2006
The analysis of total employment income in the Atlantic Provinces and British Columbia, two regions which together contain almost 90% of jobs in the fishing industry, reveals that workers in British Columbia have much higher employment incomes than their counterparts living on the east coast. Moreover, aquaculture workers in British Columbia had the largest income disparity compared to workers in the Atlantic Provinces.
In 2006, workers in British Columbia recorded incomes 32% higher on average than their Atlantic counterparts. Incomes for workers in British Columbia were 75% higher than in Newfoundland and Labrador, and 62% and 52% higher in Quebec-Atlantic and New Brunswick respectively.
In contrast, Nova Scotian workers posted incomes 10% higher than those in British Columbia. This is driven by the higher incomes earned by self-employed fish harvesters and fish processing workers. Besides Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island is the only other province which has reported higher incomes than British Columbia, such as the self-employed fish harvesters.
|Average Total Employment Income ($)|
|Self-employed Fish Harvesters||Wage-earning Fish Harvesters||Fish Processing Workers||Aquaculture Workers||Fishing Industry as a Whole|
|Newfoundland & Labrador||11,484||20,466||11,135||16,375||12,784|
|Prince Edward Island||22,808||16,352||14,829||17,463||18,250|
|Quebec (Whole Province)||17,104||16,186||13,000||15,255||14,629|
2.4 Total employment income based on the industry
This section analyzes the total employment income of fishing industry workers compared to the earnings of workers in other primary industries. This comparison will highlight the income gap between fishery workers and workers in other industries that form the primary sector. Results show a large income gap between workers in the primary sector and fishing industry workers. In 2006, workers in the primary sector recorded average employment earnings of $50,537, which corresponds to 2.8 times the employment income of fish harvesters. The average employment income of workers in the oil and gas industry reached $98,144, five times those of fish harvesters. It was $78,861 and $40,670 respectively for workers in mining and forestry (Table 2.4).
|Average Total Employment Income ($)|
|Fishing Industry||Forestry||Oil and Gas Extraction||Mining||Other Industries in the Primary Sector||Primary Sector as a Whole|
|Newfoundland & Labrador||12,726||34,117||71,294||69,464||13,214||29,789|
|Prince Edward Island||18,882||22,655||37,862||30,181||17,879||20,373|
|Quebec (Whole Province)||14,908||34,088||50,096||59,063||17,864||30,656|
Moreover, in 2006, the primary sector as a whole posted higher employment incomes than fishing industry workers in all provinces and territories. In addition to these observations, it is important to note that the difference in employment incomes, shown in Figure 2.3, between fishing industry workers and workers in other primary industries is smaller in the Atlantic Provinces than in the rest of the country, except for Newfoundland and Labrador. Primary sector workers in the Central Provinces (285%) and the Northern Territories (418%) posted the highest employment incomes as compared to fishery workers in their regions.
Figure 2.3 Total Employment Income Based on the Primary Sector and Province / Territory, 2006
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